Spinal Anatomy CNS & related structures 23% part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Spinal Anatomy CNS & related structures 23% part 2 Deck (85):
1

Ventricles of the brain are direct extensions of what?

the spinal cord

2

What are the three primary brain vesicles?

1. Prosencephalon

2. Mesencephalon

3. Rhombencephalon

3

What are the secondary structures developed from the prosencephalon?

1. Telencephalon

2. Diencephalon

4

What secondary brain vesicle does the forebrain develop from?

Telencephalon

5

What secondary brain vesicle developes the thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland, retina, mamilary body, and post. pituitary?

Diencephalon

6

what cranial nerve is associated with the telencephalon?

CN. l

7

what cranial nerve is associated with the diencephalon?

CN ll

8

What ventricles are in the prosencephalon?

1,2, and 3

9

What is the foramen of monroe?

the interventricular foramen= 1, 2, and 3rd ventricle

10

what secondary brain vesicle is developed from the mesencephalon?

mesencephalon

11

What structure is part of the mesencephalon?

midbrain

12

What cranial nerves are associated with the mesencephalon?

CN lll & lV

13

What neural canal regions are w/in the mesencephalon?

the cerebral aqueduct of sylvius

14

What secondary brain vesicles develop from the Rhombencephalon?

1. Metencephalon

2. Myelencephalon

15

What structures are in the develop from the metencephalon of the rhombencephalon?

Pons & cerebellum

16

What structures develop from the myelencephalon of the rhombencephalon?

medulla oblongata*****

17

What crainial nerves are associated with the metencephalon?

V, Vl, Vll, and Vlll

18

What cranial nerves are associated with the myelencephalon of the rhombencephalon?

lX, X, Xl, and Xll

19

What ventricle is associated with the metencephalon and myencephalon of the rhombencephalon?

4th ventricle

20

Secondary vesicle --> CN

TEL = ___

DI = ___

MES = ___

MET = ___

MY = ____

 

TEL = 1

DI = 2

MES = 3,4

MET = 5,6,7,8

MY = 9, 10, 11, 12

21

KNOW THE STRUCTURE OF THE CIRLT OF WILLIS!!!!

pg 2

22

Lateral aperatures = _____________

2 foramenia of Luschka

23

Median aperature = _____________

1 foramen of Magendie

24

What is the blood supply of circle of willis (arterial anastomosis) a communication of?

between the forebrain and hindbrain

25

What does the circle of willis surround anatomically?

The pituitary gland and optic chiasm

26

What arteries supply the circle of willis?

1. Internal carotid

2. vertebral arteries 

 

27

What arteries make up the actual circle in the cirle of willis?

1. Anterior cerebral

2. Posterior cerebral

3. Anterior communicating

4. Posterior communicating

28

Which artery of the circle of willis is the most common site for a CVA/stroke?

Middle cerebral artery

 

29

Which artery in the circle of willis carries the most blood?

middle cerebral artery (800 mL/min)

30

What artery in the circle of willis sendds 200 branches into the vental aspect of the cord?

Anteromedial longitudinal artery trunk (AMLAT) aka anterior spinal artery

31

What artery gives branches to supply the posterior roots of the spinal cord?

Posterolateral longitudinal artery trunk (PLLAT) aka posterior spinal artery

32

what is another name for the cerebral cortex?

Pallium

33

What is the Pallim (cerebral cortex) developed from?

Neural plate

34

What makes up 90% of the cerebral cortex?

a. neocortex (isocortex)

b. Allocortex

a. neocortex

35

how many cerebral cortex laminae are in the neocortex (isocortex)?

6

36

How much of the cerebral cortex does the allocortex make up?

10%

37

What is the diencephalon mostly formed by?

Thalamus

38

What structure is a relay for the cortes, processes sensory info, sleep, and consciousness?

Diencephalon (thalamus)

39

What part of the brain does motor relay?

diencephalon (thalmus)

40

What part of the brain is responsible for postural adjustments?

Basal ganglia

41

What part of the brain is responsible for steadying voluntary movements?

Basal ganglia

42

What part of the brain has enkephalins?

basal ganglia

43

Parkinsons, Huntington's chorea, and ballism are all caused by lesions in what part of the brain?

Basal ganglia

44

What structures are in the basal ganglia?

1. Corpus striatum

2. amygdaloid nucleus

3. claustrum

45

Nuclei of what brain vesicle include the cuadate, putamen, globus pallidus & basal ganglia?

a. telencephalon nuclei

b. mesenchphalon nuclei

c. corpus striatum

d. Lentiform Nucleus

a. telencephalon nuclei

46

What contains the head of the cuadate and putamen?

a. telencephalon nuclei

b. mesenchphalon nuclei

c. corpus striatum

d. Lentiform Nucleus

 

c. corpus striatum

47

The Globus pallidus (medial) and the putamen (lateral) are structures within which of the following?

a. telencephalon nuclei

b. mesenchphalon nuclei

c. corpus striatum

d. Lentiform Nucleus

d. Lentiform nucleus

48

The substantia nigra and subthalamic are structures within which of the following?

a. telencephalon nuclei

b. mesenchphalon nuclei

c. corpus striatum

d. Lentiform Nucleus

b. mesencephalon nuclei

49

What structures is the brainstem made up of?

1. Medulla oblongota

2. pons

3. midbrain

50

What is the conduit for the ascending and descending tracts?

Brainstem

51

What part of the CNS contains reflex centers associated with respiration, CV & consciousness?

brainstem

52

What nuclei does the brainstem contain?

CN. lll - Xll

53

What is the layering of the meningies from inside --> out?

Pia, Arachnoid, Dura mater (PAD)

54

How much CSF does the average adult have in the body?

140mL - 270mL

55

What is contained within the epidural space?

Fat and veins

56

What is the space between the arachnoid and pia mater called?

subarachnoid space

57

What cells are the innermost layer of the neural tube?

Ependymal cells

58

At what location is a lumbar puncture "spinal tap" perfromed?

Subarachnoid space

59

What produces CSF?

choroid plexus

60

What resorbs CSF?

Arachnoid granulations

61

How many mL of CSF are approx. in the ventricles?

25mL

62

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

31

63

What is the Bell-Magendi law?

Dorsal roots = sensory (afferent fibers)

Ventral roots = motor (efferent roots)

(S.A.M.E.)

64

What vertebral level does the spinal cord end?

L1/L2

65

What is the end of the spinal cord called?

Conus medullaris

66

What is the term for the roots of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerves exiting through the lumbar cistern called?

Cuada Equina

67

what makes the roof of the midbrain?

tectum

68

Where does the exchange of CSF between the 3rd & 4th ventricles happen?

Cerebral aqueduct of sylvius

69

Wha is the amino acid precursor to dopamine?

tyrosine

70

what is a byproduct of the production of dopamine?

melanin

71

Where is dopamine produced in the midbrain?

substantia nigra

72

The tegmentum, substantia nigra, crus cerebri, and CN lll & lV are all part of what?

cerebral peduncles

73

The corticospinal, corticopontine, corticobulbar & corticomesenvephalic fibers (move the eye) are all part of what?

crus cerebri

74

What functions in the integration of "momentary" static muscle contraction, joint tension, visual & auditory input all regarding EQUILIBRIUM?

Cerebellum

75

cerebellum = _____________

EQUILIBRIUM

76

The vermis of the cerebellum is located:

a. medially

b. laterally

c. posteriorly

d. superiorly

a. medially

77

What is located more anterior and deals with general muscle tone?

a. Paleocerebellar

b. Neocerebellar

c. Archicerebellar

a. Paleocerebellar

78

What part of the cerebellum is aka flocculonodular and deals with equilibrium?

a. Paleocerebellar

b. Neocerebellar

c. Archicerebellar

c. Archicerebellar

79

Which part of the cerebellum is located posteriorly and is responsible for coordianation of skilled movements?

a. Paleocerebellar

b. Neocerebellar

c. Archicerebellar

b. Neocerebellar

80

What is the white matter of the cerebellum called?

corpus medullare

81

what are the gray matter neuron cell types of the cerebellum?

a. purkinje

b. Golgi ll

c. Stellate

d. Basket

e. Granular

a,b,c,d,e

82

What is the mc cell type in the cerebellum?

a. purkinje

b. Golgi ll

c. Stellate

d. Basket

e. Granular

a. purkinje

83

What is the blood supply to the cerebellum?

branches of the vertebral & basilar arteries

84

Name the cerebellar nuclei from medial to lateral, small to large?

1. Fastigial

2. Emboliform

3. Dentate

4. Globus

 

1, 4, 2, 3

Fastigial, Globus, Emboliform, Dentate

(Fat Girls Eat Donuts)

85