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Flashcards in Spinal Cord Deck (88):
1

In horizontal view, what direction of the spinal cord tends to be largest?

Transverse

2

What are the spinal cord enlargement locations and the name given to each?

C3-T1 = cervical enlargement
T9-T12 = lumbar (lumbosacral) enlargement

3

Where is the greatest transverse diameter of the spinal cord?

C6

4

In which plane (or direction) will the diameter of the spinal cord decrease from C2-T1?

Midsagittal or anterior-posterior plane

5

What is the generic cord level of origin - vertebral level combination of the lumbar (lumbosacral) enlargement?

L1, L2 cord levels in T9 vertebra
L3, L4 cord levels in T10 vertebra
L5, S1 cord levels in T11 vertebra
S2, S3 cord levels in T12 vertebra

6

What is the caudal end of the spinal cord called?

Conus medullaris

7

What spinal nerves originate from the conus medullaris?

Typically S4, S5, Co1

8

Which vertebral foramen will the conus medullaris typically be observed?

L1

9

What is the name given to the nerve roots below L1?

Cauda equina

10

What is the continuation of pia mater below the conus medullaris called?

Filum terminale internum

11

What is the location and name given to the area where all meninges first coverage at the caudal part of the vertebral column?

Typically S2 (dural cul de sac)

12

Neural tissue has been identified in what part of the filum terminale?

Proximal part of the filum terminale internum

13

What is the fate of the neural tissue identified along the filum terminale internum?

It joins peripheral nerve roots of spinal nerves as high as L3 and low as S4

14

What does the neural tissue associated with the filum terminale externum appear to innervate?

Lower limbs and the external anal sphincter

15

The last arterial vasa corona creates what feature on angiogram?

Cruciate anastomosis

16

What is the name given to the condensation of meninges below S2?

Filum terminale externum

17

What is the name given to the caudal attachment of the meninges?

Coccygeal medullary vestige

18

What is the name given to the condition in which the conus medullaris is located below L1 and the filum terminale is thickened?

Tethered cord syndrome

19

What is the relationship between scoliosis and tethered cord syndrome?

It is suggested that the column will change normal curvatures to mitigate damage to the spinal cord

20

What is the relationship between rib number and vertebral numbers at the costocentral joint?

Rib number always equates to same vertebral number at the costocentral joint rib 3 articulates with T3 segment and also with the T2 segment
Only Ribs 1, 11 and 12 typically joint with a single segment

21

What is the relationship between spinal nerve number, rib number and vertebral number in a thoracic intervertebral foramen?

The spinal nerve number relates to the upper segment number in the vertebral couple the rib number relates to the lower segment number in the vertebral couple

22

Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebrae?

Ant bear
Three-toed sloth

23

Which mammals have less than seven cervical vertebrae?

Two-toed sloth
Manatee

24

Which vertebrae are typical cervical?

C3-C6

25

What is the appearance of the typical cervical vertebral body from the lateral view?

Posterior height is greater than anterior height by a few millimeters

26

What would be the direction of the cervical curve based on osseous features?

Posterior or kyphotic

27

What accounts for the direction of the typical cervical curve?

Intervertebral disc height

28

What is the direction of the typical cervical curve?

Anterior or lordotic

29

At which vertebral couple will the cervical curve again increase intervertebral disc height?

C5/C6

30

What is the effect of aging on the cervical vertebral body?

It diminishes the overall height of the vertebral body

31

What are the modifications of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

Anterior groove
Posterior groove
Right and left uncinate process

32

What are the names of lateral modification of the superior epiphyseal rim?

Uncinate process
Unciform process
Uncovertebral process
Uncus or lateral lip

33

At what developmental age will the uncinate process first be observed?

3rd-4th fetal month

34

What are the modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

Anterior lip
Posterior lip
Right and left lateral grooves

35

What is the joint classification for the anterior lip-posterior groove articulation?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

36

What is the joint classification for the uncinate process-lateral groove articulation?

Modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)

37

What is the joint classification for the spongy bone-intervertebral disc articulation?

Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

38

How many joint surfaces are present on the upper surface of a typical cervical vertebral body?

5

39

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical?

10

40

What is the name given to the uncinate process-lateral groove articulation?

Joint of Luschka or uncovertebral joint

41

The joint of Luschka is formed from what surface?

Uncinate process
Lateral groove

42

What is the functional significance of the joint of Luschka?

Appears to stabilize the intervetral disc while accommodating flexion-extension and requiring coupled motion (axial rotation with lateral bending) in the cervical spine

43

What muscle attaches to the typical cervical vertebral body?

Longus colli muscle

44

What is the orientation and angulation of the pedicle of a typical cervical?

Posterolateral - 45 degrees

45

At what location on the vertebral body of a typical cervical will the pedicle attach?

To the side and in the center of the vertebral body?

46

What surface feature is located at the upper margin of the pedicle?

Superior vertebral notch

47

What ligament attaches to the lamina of a typical cervical?

Ligamentum flavum

48

What joint classification will be associated with the ligamentum flavum and its attachment?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

49

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will result in what feature?

Para-articular processes

50

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will be associated with which classification of bone?

Accessory bone

51

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen of a typical cervical vertebra?

Heart-shaped or triangluar

52

Which is the greatest diameter of the vertebral foramen of typical cervicals?

Transverse

53

What soft tissue diameter mimics the outline of the typical cervical vertebral foramen?

Transverse diameter of the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord

54

The greatest transverse diameter of the typical cervical vertebra occurs at?

C6

55

The greatest frequency of osteophytes associated with the vertebral body occurs at which typical cervical vertebral couple?

C5/C6

56

List, in order, the osseous parts of the typical cervical vertebra transverse process beginning at the vertebral body.

Costal element
Anterior tubercle
Costotransverse bar
Posterior tubercle
True transverse process

57

What muscles will attach to the anterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra?

Anterior scalene
Longus capitis
Longus colli
Anterior intertransversarii

58

What muscles may attach to the posterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra?

Splenius cervicis
Iliocostalis cervicis
Longissimus cervicis
Levator scapula
Middle scalene
Posterior scalene
Rotators
Posterior intertransversarii

59

What muscles will attach to the costotransverse bar?

Middle scalene
Posterior intertransversarii

60

What is the name given to the collective rib-forming region?

Pleurapophysis

61

What is the name given to the superior margin of the costotransverse bar?

Sulcus for the ventral primary ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

62

What is the orientation and angulation of a typical cervical transverse process?

60 degrees anterolaterally (from midsagittal plane)
15 degreed inferiorly (from the horizontal plane)

63

What is the name given to the modification of the anterior tubercle of the C6 transverse process?

Carotid tubercle

64

What will cause remodeling of the anterior tubercle at C6?

Common carotid artery

65

What will occupy the typical cervical vertebra transverse foramen?

Vertebral artery
Vertebral venous plexus
Postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

66

What is the name of the surface feature observed between the ends of the articular pillar?

Groove/sulcus for the dorsal primary ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

67

What is the classic angulation of a typical cervical articular facet?

40-45 degrees from the coronal plane

68

Recent work suggests what angulation for typical cervical articular facets?

55-60 degrees

69

What is the orientation of the typical cervical superior articular facet?

Backward, upward, medial (BUM)

70

What is the orientation of the typical cervical inferior articular facet?

Forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)

71

What muscles will attach to typical cervical articular processes?

Longissimus capitis
Longissimus cervicis
Semispinalis capitis
Semispinalis cervicis
Multifidis
Rotators

72

What muscles blend with the capsular ligament of cervical zygapophyses?

Semispinalis capitis
Multifidis
Rotator longus

73

The greatest range of flexion-extension among the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at which vertebral couple?

Typically C5/C6

74

What motions are coupled in the cervical spine?

Lateral bending and axial rotation

75

Ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will be similar for what cervical vertebral couples?

C2/C3
C3/C4
C4/C5

76

Ranges for coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will begin to decrease at cervical vertebral couple?

C5/C6

77

What is the usual condition for the Caucasian typical cervical spinous process?

They are bifid

78

What is the usual condition for the African-American typical cervical spinous process?

They are not bifid

79

What muscles may attach to the typical cervical spinous process?

Spinalis cervicis
Semispinalis cervicis
Semispinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotators
Interspinalis

80

What forms the unique anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen for the C4 spinal nerve?

Lateral groove of C3
Uncinate process of C4 forming the joint of Luschka

81

What will occupy the typical cervical vertebra transverse foramen?

Vertebral artery
Vertebral venous plexus
Postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

82

What will influence spinal kinematics?

Geometry of articular facets
Mechanical properties of connective tissue
Mechanical properties of muscle

83

What should be carefully considered when applying research results to a population?

Condition of the subject material (fresh cadaver, fixed cadaver, living subject)
Age range of the population studied
Method of measurement (X-ray, gonimeter, MRI, etc.)

84

What will form the anterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

Lateral groove & vertebral body of the segment above
Uncinate process & vertebral body of the segment below
Intervertebral disc & the posterior longitudinal ligmaent

85

What will form the posterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

Inferior articular process (post-zygapophysis)
Superior articular process (pre-zygapophysis)
Capsular ligament
Ligamentum flavum

86

What will form the superior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

Inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

87

What will form the inferior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

Superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure

88

What will form the unique anterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

Uncinate process of the segment below & the lateral groove of the segment above to form the joint of Luschka