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Flashcards in Staging & Tumor Types Deck (75)
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1

Define Staging

Process of finding out how much cancer is in a person's body & where it is located

2

What does staging help with?

Treatment plans
Predict person's prognosis

3

Main Factors in Staging

Location of primary tumor
Tumor size & extent of tumors
Lymph node involvement
Presence or absence of distant metastasis

4

How are cancers staged?

Imaging
Lab tests
PE
Pathology reports

5

Types of Staging

Clinical staging
Pathologic staging

6

Define Clinical Staging

Estimate of the extent of cancer based on results

7

Most Common Staging System

TNM

8

What does TNM stand for?

T: primary tumor
N: nodes
M: metastasis

9

What information about the primary tumor is given with the T number?

Size
How deep it has grown into the organ
If it has grown into nearby tissues

10

Define TX

Tumor can't be measured

11

Define T0

No evidence of primary tumor

12

DefineTis

Cancer cells are only growing into most superficial layers

13

Define N in the TNM Staging

Describes whether the cancer has spread into the lymph nodes

14

Define NX

Nearby lymph nodes can't be evaluated

15

Define N0

Nearby lymph nodes do not contain cancer

16

Meaning of Numbers After N

Size
Location
# of nodes

17

Define M in the TNM Staging

Tell whether cancer has spread to a distant body part

18

Define M0

No cancer spread was found

19

Define M1

Cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues

20

Stage 0

Carcinoma in situ

21

Stage I, II, III

Higher numbers indicate more extensive disease

22

Stage IV

Cancer has spread to distant tissues or organs

23

Other Staging Terms

In situ
Localized
Regional
Distant
Unknown

24

Define Localized

Limited to place where it started
No spread

25

Define Regional

Nearby lymph nodes

26

Define Distant

Distant part of the body
Ex: brain, liver, bones

27

Tumor Types

Carcinoma
Sarcoma
Leukemia
Lymphoma
Multiple Myeloma
Melanoma
Brain & Spinal Cord Tumors
Others

28

Define Carcinoma

Cancer formed by epithelial cells
Ex: adenocarcinoma, BCC, SCC, transitional cell carcinoma

29

Define Adenocarcinoma

Cancer that produces fluids or mucus

30

Define Basal Cell Carcinoma

Cancer that begins in the base layer of epidermis