Study Guide Questions- Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Study Guide Questions- Exam 2 Deck (200):
1

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will be associated with which classification of bone?

Accessory bone

2

Ossification within the length of the ligamentum flavum will be associated with which classification of bone?

Heterotopic bone

3

The greatest transverse diameter of the typical cervical vertebra occurs at ____?

C6

4

The greatest frequency of osteophytes associated with the vertebral body occurs at which typical cervical vertebral couple?

C5/C6

5

List, in order, the osseous parts of the typical cervical vertebra transverse process beginning at the vertebral body.

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

6

What muscles may attach to the posterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra?

splenius cervicis, iliocostalis cervicis, longissimus cervicis, levator scapula, middle scalene, posterior scalene, rotators and posterior intertransverse muscles.

7

What muscles will attach to the costotransverse bar?

Middle scalene and posterior intertransverse muscles

8

What is the orientation and angulation of a typical cervical transverse process?

60 degress anterolaterally (from midsagittal plane), 15 degrees inferiorly (from the horizontal plane)

9

What is the name given to the modification of the anterior tubercle of the C6 transverse process?

the carotid tubercle

10

What will occupy the typical cervical vertebra transverse foramen?

the vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus and postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

11

What is the classic angulation of typical cervical articular facets?

forty to forty-five degrees from the coronal plane

12

What is the orientation of the typical cervical superior articular facet?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

13

What is the orientation of the typical cervical inferior articular facet?

forward, lateral, down (FoLD)

14

What muscles will attach to typical cervical articular processes?

the longissimus capitis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, mutifidus and rotators.

15

What muscles blend with the capsular ligament of cervical zygapophyses?

the semispinalis capitis, multifidis, and rotator longus

16

What modifications of the synovial joint are observed in the cervical spine?

meniscoidal folds

17

The greatest range of flexion- extension among the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at which vertebral couple?

typically C5/C6

18

What motions are coupled in the cervical spine?

lateral bending and axial rotation

19

Ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will begin to decrease at what cervical vertebral couple?

the C5/C6 vertebral couple

20

What is the usual condition for the African-American typical cervical spinous process?

they are non-bifid

21

What muscles may attach to the typical cervical spinous process?

the spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotators and interspinalis

22

What joint classifications are observed on the anterior arch of C1?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint and synovial (diarthrosis) trochoid joint

23

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

24

What is the joint classification of the atlnato-occipital zygapophysis?

synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint

25

What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1?

asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened

26

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?

backward, medial, downward (BMD)

27

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-axial zygapophysis?

synovial (diarthrosis)arthrodia joint

28

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?

levator scapula, splenius cervicis and rectus capitis anterior

29

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?

males: about fifty millimeters;
females: about thirty-seven millimeters

30

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?

rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

31

Ossification of the free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament results in which atypical bone classification?

accessory bone

32

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?

about age 7 years old

33

Based on the amount of ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament what structures will form?

an incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus

34

What forms the types of ponticulus posticus?

ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

35

What other name may be used to identify a ponticulus posticus?

Kimmerle's anomaly

36

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?

arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

37

Ponticulus posticus has observed in what ethnic populations?

all ethenic populations studies thus far

38

What is the general range of incidence of ponticulus posticus in the populations studied?

1% - 41%

39

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?

costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

40

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?

rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior, and intertranversarii muscles

41

What suboccipital muscles are known to have fascial projections attaching to the spinal dura?

rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior

42

What are the connections between suboccipital muscles and the spinal dura called?

myodural bridges

43

What are the lateral bridges of atlas connected to?

the lateral mass and the transverse process of atlas

44

What opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed?

the retrotransverse foramen

45

What are the possible contents of the retrotransverse foramen?

the vertebral artery, a branch from the suboccipital nerve and veins communicating with the venous sinuses of the neck

46

What is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1?

Males: 78 millimeters
Females: 72 millimeters

47

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender?

a little over 30 millimeters for both males and females

48

What joint classifications are observed at C1?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint, synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint, synovial (diarthrosis) rochoid joint and synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia joint

49

How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

five

50

What names are given to C2?

axis or epistropheus

51

What joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

facet for fovea dentis, groove for transverse atlantal ligament, attachment sites for the alar ligaments, attachment site for the apical-dental ligament

52

How many joint surfaces are present of the odontoid process of C2?

five

53

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies above the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed posterior?

lordotic dens

54

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed anterior?

kyphotic dens

55

What joint classifications are present at the vertebral body of C2?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint, synovial (diarthrosis) trochoid joint, modified synovial (diarthrosis) sellar and cartilagenous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint

56

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal above C2?

membrana tectoria

57

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal below C2?

posterior longitudinal ligament

58

What attaches to the lamina of C2?

Obliquus capitis inferior muscle, posterior atlanto-axial ligament, ligamentum flavum

59

What muscle attaches to the lamina of C2?

obliquus capitis inferior

60

What is the appearance of the superior articular facets of C2?

they are asymmetrical and slightly convex

61

What is the facet orientation of the superior articular facets of C2?

backward, upward and lateral (BUL)

62

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of C2?

forward, lateral and down (FoLD)

63

What muscle attaches to the articular processes of C2?

longissimus cervicis

64

What osseous parts of the typical cervical transverse process are present at C2?

costal element, posterior tubercle, and true transverse process

65

What is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2?

males: 57 millimeters
females: about 50 millimeters

66

What muscles attach to the transverse process at C2?

levator scapulae, middle scalene, splenius cervicis, longissimus cervicis and intertransversarii

67

what muscles attach to the spinous process of C2?

rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior, spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, mulitfidis, rotators and interspinalis muscles.

68

What names may be given to C7?

vertebra prominens and vertebral prominence

69

What is the name given to the topographical elevation observed at the base of the neck?

vertebral prominence

70

What name is given only to C7?

vertebra prominens

71

What is the segment and gender bias for vertebrae other than C7 becoming the vertebral prominence?

C6 is more common in females
T1 is more common in males

72

How many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C7?

eight

73

What joint classifications are observed at the vertebral body of C7?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint, and modified synovial (diarthrosis) sellar joint

74

How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at the vertebral body of C7?

two

75

What muscle(s) attaches to the vertebral body of C7?

longus colli muscle

76

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C7?

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

77

What features are typically present in the transverse foramen of C7?

vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor fibers

78

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C7?

middle scalene, iliocostalis thoracis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, rotators, intertransversarii and levator costorum brevis

79

What is the angulation of the articular facet at C7?

more vertical at about 63 degrees

80

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C7?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

81

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C7?

forward, medial, downward (ForMeD)

82

What muscles will attach to the articular process of C7?

longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis, semispinalis cervicis and multifidis

83

What are the features of the spinous process of C7?

long, horizontal, nonbifid

84

What muscles attach to the spinous process of C7?

trapezius, rhomboid minor, serratus posterior superior, splenius capitis, spinalis capitis, spinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotators and interspinalis.

85

What ligaments attach to the spinous process of C7?

ligamentum nuchae and interspinous ligaments

86

The vertebral artery on which side is typically larger?

left vertebral artery

87

What is the gender bias regarding size of the vertebral artery?

men have larger vertebral arteries than women

88

What is the name of the physical exam used to determine vertebral artery patency?

eh vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency test

89

Which side artery is tested during the course of the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency exam?

the ipsilateral artery on the side of rotation

90

What are the symptoms of failure of the vertebral artery to compensate during the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency exam?

dizziness, vertigo, nausea are common complaints

91

Typically, at what vertebral level will the vertebral artery first become located in the transverse foramen?

C6

92

At what location will the vertebral artery form its first compensatory loop?

the atlanto-axial interspace

93

At what location will the vertebral artery form its second compensatory loop?

the atlanto-occipital interspace

94

At what segments will the vertebral artery be firmly attached to the transverse foramen?

both C1 and C2

95

What is the purpose of the vertebral artery loops between C2, C1 and occiput?

The increase length will accommodate the greater rotation at these location

96

What happens to the vertebral artery as it enters the vertebral foramen of C1?

the adventitia of the artery blends with the dura mater and arachnoid mater; as a result the artery lies in the subarachnoid space

97

What happens to the vertebral artery after it enters the subarachnoid space at C1?

the vertebral artery ascends along the medulla oblongata to the pontine- medullary junction where the right and left arteries unite to form the basilar artery

98

What are the superior articular facet orientation for the cervical vertebrae?

C1 is backward, upward, medial (BUM)
C2 is backward, upward, lateral (BUL)
C3-C7 is backward, upward, medial (BUM)

99

What are the inferior articular facet orientations for the cervicial vertebrae?

C1 is backward, downward, medial (BMD)
C2-C6 is forward, downward, lateral (FoLD)
C7 is forward, downward, medial (ForMeD)

100

How many synovial joints are identified for each cervical vertebra?

C1 = 5
C2 = 8
C3-6 = 8
C7 = 6

101

How many joints are identified at the vertebral body of each cervical vertebra?

C1 = none
C2 = 10
C3-6 = 10
C7 = 8

102

What features will allow discrimination between T2-T4 and T5-T8 segmental groups?

The vertebral body, transverse process, articular process and spinous process

103

What is the height patter of the typical thoracic vertebral body?

the posterior height is greater than the anterior height by one to two millimeters

104

What is another way of naming a posterior curve pattern?

a kyphotic curve

105

What joint classifications are identified at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint,
cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint,
and synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia joint

106

How many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

four

107

How many symphysis joints are formed with the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

two

108

How many joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

typically ten; fourteen if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included

109

What ligaments support the costocentral joint?

the costocentral stellate/radiate ligament and the costocentral interarticular or intra-articular ligament

110

What is the size relationship between the articulating surface of the head/capitulum of the rib and the costal demi-facet surface?

the rib surface is greater than the costal demi-facet surface

111

Which X-ray view is used to see into the intervertebral foramen of a typical thoracic?

the lateral view

112

What is the nerve - vertebral body relationship at the typical thoracic intervertebral foramen?

in the intervertebral foramen, the number of the nerve is the same as the number of the upper thoracic in the vertebral couple.

113

What is the rib - vertebral body relationship at the typical thoracic intervertebral foramen?

in the intervertebral foramen, the number of the rib is the same as the number of the lower thoracic in the vertebral couple

114

What ligaments support the costotransverse joint of a typical thoracic?

the superior costotransverse,
inferior costotransverse,
and lateral costotransverse ligaments

115

What ligaments attach to the transverse process of a typical thoracic?

intertransverse, capsular costotransverse, superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments.

116

How do the transverse diameters of the articular processes compare in the T2-T4 region?

the superior articular process transverse diameters is greater than the inferior articular process transverse diameter for a given segment.

117

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of a typical thoracic?

backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)

118

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of a typical thoracic?

forward, downward, and medial (ForMeD)

119

How many synovial joints are present at a typical thoracic?

ten

120

How many synovial joint surfaces for ribs are present on a typical thoracic?

six

121

What is the angulation of the spinous process in the typical thoracic region?

the undersurface of T2-T4 spinous processes will angle up to forty degrees from the horizontal plane
the undersurface of T5-T8 spinous processes will angle up to sixty degrees from the horizontal plane

122

What joint classifications are present at every typical thoracic vertebra?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint,
cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint,
and synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia joint

123

How many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1?

four normally

124

How many symphysis joints are formed with the vertebral body of T1?

two

125

How many joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1?

typically ten; fourteen if the rib ligaments are included

126

How many synovial joints are present at T1?

ten

127

Identify the synovial joint surfaces present at T1.

two superior costal facets,
two inferior costal demi-facets
two transverse costal facets
two superior articular facets
two inferior costal facets

128

How many joints are typically formed at the vertebral body of T9?

typically ten, fourteen if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included

129

How does the superior costal demi-facet [of T9] compare in size with those of T2-T8?

it is larger

130

How many joints are typically formed at the vertebral body of T10?

typically eight; twelve if the costocetnral stellate/radiate ligaments are included

131

Which synovial joint surface is absent from the vertebral body to T10?

Inferior costal demi-facet

132

Para-articular processes are more commonly observed on which segment?

T10

133

What muscles attach to the transverse process of T10?

longissimus thoracis,
semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotator longus and rotator brevis,
intertransversarii, levator costarum longus, and levator costarum brevis

134

How many synovial joints are typically present at T10?

eight

135

A dimpling or depression of the skin in the thoracic region is often characteristic of the location of which segment?

T10

136

What muscles attach to the spinous process of T10?

trapezius, latissimus dorsi, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis and interspinalis

137

What name is given to T11?

the anticlinal vertebra

138

What is the outline of the vertebral body of T11 on superior view?

kidney-shaped or reniform

139

How many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of T11?

two

140

How many joints are typically formed at the vertebral body of T11?

typically eight; twelve if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included

141

Which synovial joint surface is absent from the vertebral body of T11?

inferior costal demi-facets

142

How does the superior costal facet compare in size with those of T10?

it is larger, below the superior epiphyseal rim, and is completely circular

143

Which ligament of the costocentral joint is absent for the eleventh rib?

the costocentral interarticular or intra-articular ligament

144

What ligaments form the costotransverse joint of T11?

the superior costotransverse, and slightly developed inferior costotransverse and lateral costotransverse.

145

How many synovial joints are typically present at T11?

six

146

Identify the synovial joint surfaces typically present on T11.

two superior costal facets,
two superior articular facets,
two inferior articular facets

147

Which muscle(s) is attached to teh vertebral body of T12?

psoas major and psoas minor

148

Which tubercle on T12 represents the transverse process?

the lateral tubercle

149

Which tubercle on T12 represents the mammillary process of the lumbars?

the superior tubercle

150

Which tubercle on T12 represents the accessory process of the lumbars?

the inferior tubercle

151

What joint surface of the typical thoracic transverse process is absent on T12?

the transverse costal facet

152

What ligaments form the costotransverse joint of the twelfth rib?

the superior costotransverse ligament from T11 and the lumbosacral ligament from L1

153

What muscles attach to the transverse process region of T12?

the longissimus thoracis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis and intertransversarii

154

What is the orientation of the superior articular facets of T12?

they face backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)

155

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of T12?

forward, downward, and lateral (FoLD)

156

What muscles attach to the spinous process of T12?

the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, serratus posterior inferior, iliocostalis lumborum, spinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis and interspinalis

157

What accounts for the direction of the lumbar curve?

the vertebral body height and intervertebral disc have a greater anterior height than posterior height.

158

What muscles may attach to a typical lumbar vertebral body?

psoas major and psoas minor

159

What is the name given to ligaments which attach the vertebral body to articular process?

transforaminal ligament

160

What ligaments attach the vertebral body to the transverse process?

corporotransverse ligaments

161

Cervical - Upper Thoracic Hofmann ligaments will attach what structures together?

dura mater to segments above

162

What is the highest level known to demonstrate Hofmann ligaments?

C6

163

What is the proposed function of the cervical - upper thoracic Hofmann ligaments?

resist caudal movement of the dural sac; resist gravitational forces on the dura and the cord.

164

Lumbar Hofmann ligaments will attach what structures together?

dura mater to lower segmental levels

165

What is the proposed function of the lumbar Hofmann ligaments:

resist cranial movement of the dural sac during flexion

166

Congenital elongation of the lumbar accessory process results in what feature?

styloid process

167

What muscle(s) attach to the lumbar accessory process?

longissimus thoracis and intertransversarii

168

What osseous components are attached via the lumbocostal ligament?

the transverse process of L1 and neck/collum of the twelfth rib

169

What muscles may attach to the transverse process of a typical lumbar vertebra?

psoas major, quadratus lumborum, longissimus thoracis, rotator brevis, rotator longus and intertransversarii

170

What ligaments attach to the transverse process of a typical lumbar vertebra?

the lumbocostal, mammillo-accessory and intertransverse ligaments

171

What are the anterior elements of the vertebra?

vertebral body and pedicle

172

What is the orientation of the typical lumbar superior articular facet?

backward, upward, medial (BUM); typically concave

173

What is the orientation of the typical lumbar inferior articular facet?

forward, lateral, downward (FoLD); significant convexity

174

What muscle(s) will attach to the mammillary process?

multifidis and intertransversarii

175

What was believed to be entrapped by the mammillo-accessory ligament?

the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a lumbar spinal nerve

176

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in children?

the zygapophysis lies in the coronal plane

177

What is the position of the lumbar zygapophysis in adults?

the zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane for L1/L2, L2/L3, & L3/L4
the zygapophysis lies in the the coronal plane for L4/L5 & L5/S1

178

What names are given to the condition in which one zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in the coronal plane or position and the other zygapophysis lies in the sagittal plane or position?

joint asymmetry or joint tropism

179

What is the name(s) of the condition in which the typical lumbar spinous process increases in length due to the aging process?

Baastrup's Syndrome or "Kissing Spines"

180

What muscles will attach to the typical lumbar spinous process?

latissimus dorsi, serratus posterior inferior, iliocostalis lumborum, longissimus thoracis, spinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis, and interspinalis

181

What osseous conditions of lumbar vertebrae facilitate a spinal tap in this region?

overlap of the laminae, shingling, diminishes;
overlap of the spinous processes, imbrication, diminishes

182

What is the appearance of the fifth lumbar vertebral body from the lateral view?

anterior height is greater than posterior height by several millimeters; it appears to form a wedge on a lateral x-ray view

183

What muscles may attach to the transverse process of the fifth thoracic vertebra?

psoas major, quadratus lumborum, longissimus thoracis, rotator brevis, rotator longus, and intertransversarii

184

What ligaments traditionally attach to the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra?

lumbosacral, iliolumbar and mammillo-accessory ligaments

185

What are the posterior elements of the vertebra?

zygapophysis, lamina, and spinous process

186

What is the reported angulation and x-ray appearance of the fifth lumbar articular facets?

they lie in the vertical plane and are coronal facets

187

What is the orientation of the fifth lumbar inferior articular facet?

forward, lateral, downward (FoLD); significant convexity

188

What is Baastrup's syndrome?

elongation of the lumbar spinous process as a result of aging

189

What is the name given to the congenital condition in which the fifth lumbar spinous process is elongated, the sacrum exhibits spina bifida, and dorsiflexion produces pain?

Knife Clasp Syndrome

190

Lumbar spondylolysis has not been reported in what groups of individuals?

fetuses, newborns, rarely in children under 5 years old, patients who have never walked and in non-erect species

191

What does lumbar spondylolysis appear to be related to?

the uniquely human upright stance or erect posture

192

What is the gender bias and locational bias associated with lumbar spondylolysis?

men at L5/S1; women at L4/L5

193

What is the appearance of the lumbar vertebra upon oblique x-ray view?

a Scotty dog

194

What is the appearance of a pars defect in a lumbar vertebra upon oblique x-ray view?

a collared Scotty dog

195

What is the appearance of a spondylolysis in a lumbar vertebra upon oblique x-ray view?

a collared Scotty dog

196

In an oblique x-ray, spondylolysis below the superior articular process of a lumbar pars interarticularisis associated with what part of the Scotty dog?

the neck of the Scotty dog

197

What part of a lumbar vertebra forms the eye of a Scotty dog?

the pedicle

198

What part of a lumbar vertebra forms the ear of a Scotty dog?

the superior articular process

199

What part of a lumbar vertebra forms the nose of a Scotty dog?

the transverse process

200

What characteristics are associated with cervicial spondylolysis?

rare, congenital, gender biased toward men, most common at C6 and linked to spondylolysis and spina bifida.