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Flashcards in Substance Abuse Deck (25)
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1

How many deaths in the UK were there in 2013 due to illegal drugs?

2000

2

How many alcohol related deaths were there in the UK in 2013?

8,500

3

How many smoking related deaths are there in the UK each year?

~100,000

4

What aspects need to be considered when looking at the reasons for drug and alcohol abuse?

Social aspect and psychological aspect

5

What factors can be included as part of the social aspect?

Environmental factors and interpersonal factors

6

How can a persons environment influence their drug usage?

People in deprived areas are more likely to be frequent drug users (4.5%) than those in the least deprived areas (2.3%)

7

What factors can be included as part of the psychological aspect?

Emotional factors (Stress etc.), and intrapersonal factors

8

Outline the levels of drinking behaviour

- Abstention

- Low risk drinking

- Hazardous drinking

- Harmful drinking

- Moderate dependence

- Severe dependence

9

Define 'abstention' in relation to drinking habits

Non drinkers

10

Define 'low risk drinking' in relation to drinking habits

People who drink within the Department of Health's sensible drinking guidelines

11

Outline the Department of Health's guidelines for sensible drinking

No more than 14 units per week for men and women. Consumption to this level should be spread out evenly over 3+ days

12

Define 'hazardous drinking' in relation to drinking habits

People who drink over the sensible drinking limits in terms of either:

- Regular excessive consumption

OR

- Less frequent sessions of heavy drinking

13

What do 'hazardous drinkers' experience in terms of symptoms?

TRICK QUESTION!

Hazardous drinkers have so far avoided significant alcohol related problems.

HOWEVER

They are at "risk of harmful consequences"

14

Define 'harmful drinking' in relation to drinking habits

Levels above the recommended sensible limit, and typically at levels higher than 'hazardous drinkers'.

Unlike hazardous drinkers, they show clear evidence of some alcohol related harm.

15

What types of harm can 'harmful drinkers' have suffered as a result of alcohol use?

Physical or mental

Many 'harmful drinkers' may not understand the link between their drinking and the harm they have sustained.

16

Define 'moderate dependence' in relation to drinking habits

Drinkers who have a degree of dependence but have not reached a stage of 'relief drinking',

i.e. They do not drink to avoid physical discomfort from withdrawal symptoms.

17

What are moderately dependent drinkers usually suitable for?

Detox in the community.

18

Define 'severe dependence' in relation to drinking habits.

People in this category may have serious and long standing problems and they are often seen as 'chronic alcoholics'.

They have typically experienced significant alcohol withdrawal symptoms and drink to avoid them.

19

What screening tools can be used to identify levels of alcohol use?

AUDIT and FAST

20

What does AUDIT stand for?

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Tool

21

What does FAST stand for?

Fast Alcohol Screening Test

22

What types of management may patients with alcohol problems require?

- Alcohol detoxification

- Supportive treatment

- Relapse prevention

- Management of acute intoxication

23

What can alcohol detoxification involve?

- Treatment of patients with alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

- Use of drugs such as vitamin B1 and B complex, diazepam, and hemineverin

24

What supportive treatments can be given to patients with alcohol problems?

Nutritional supplements

25

What medication can be given as part of relapse prevention?

Medications to promote abstinence:

- Acomprosate

- Disulfiram