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Flashcards in Sympathetics Part 1 Deck (33)
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1

Where are the cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons located?

lateral horn T1-L2 or L3

2

How do preganglionic sympathetics exit the spinal cord?

in the anterior rootlets

3

T/F: preganglionic sympathetics follow the posterior primary ramus.

false; anterior primary ramus

4

How do preganglionic sympathetics get from the anterior primary ramus to the sympathetic trunk?

white ramus communicans

5

T/F: white rami communicans are myelinated.

true

6

T/F: most preganglionic sympathetics will synapse before reaching the sympathetic trunk.

False; most will synapse on postganglionic cells in the sympathetic trunk

7

Where are preganglionic sympathetics that do not synapse in the sympathetic trunk carried and in what?

carried in splanchnic nerves to synapse in prevertebral plexuses

8

Some preganglionic sympathetics synapse in prevertebral plexuses associated with what viscera?

abdominopelvic viscera

9

T/F: Most Preganglionic sympathetics release Acetylcholine.

True

10

What is the term for the two paravertebral columns of interconnected ganglia?

sympathetic trunk

11

T/F: the sympathetic trunk only carries descending fibers.

False; carries both ascending and descending fibers

12

What ganglion of the sympathetic trunk is the most superior? most inferior?

superior cervical ganglion;
ganglion impar

13

How many ganglia are usually in the sympathetic trunk?

21 or 22 in EACH trunk

14

How many ganglia are in the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk? thoracic? lumbar? sacral?

3 cervical;
11 thoracic;
4 lumbar;
4 sacral

15

Which ganglia are most often fused? What is the name of resulting ganglion?

1st thoracic and inferior cervical;
stellate ganglion

16

What structure is the sympathetic trunk located posterior to in the cervical area? anterior to in the upper thoracic area?

carotid sheath;
necks of the ribs

17

T/F: sympathetic trunks become more laterally located inferiorly.

False; become more medially located

18

T/F:sympathetic trunks rest on the lateral aspect of the vertebarl bodies in the lower thoracic and lumbar areas.

True

19

T/F: sympathetic trunks lie on anterior aspect of the sacrum, eventually joining at the level of S4.

False; join at level of the coccyx

20

What structures do the sympathetic trunks lie anterior to in the cervical area?

longus colli and capitis

21

Which cervical nerves have white rami communicans?

none; only T1-L2 or L3

22

Which cervical nerves have gray rami communicans?

each cervical nerve

23

Which ganglia are usually associated with the cervical sympathetic trunk?

superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia

24

Which cervical ganglion is the largest?

superior cervical ganglion

25

What is the superior cervical ganglion formed by?

the upper 4 cervical ganglia

26

Where is the superior cervical ganglion located?

level of C2-C3, between carotid sheath and longus capitis muscle

27

How are fibers from the superior cervical ganglion distributed?

in anterior, medial, or lateral branches

28

T/F: there is more than the gray rami communicans leaving the superior cervical ganglion.

True

29

Which branches coming from the superior cervical ganglion are considered the gray rami communicans?

lateral branches

30

What do the lateral branches from the superior cervical ganglion communicate with?

anterior primary rami of C1-C4 as well as some cranial nerves (IX, X, XII, notably)