Test 2 ch 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 ch 5 Deck (37)
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1

pulse dosing

for fungal nail infections you take an increased dose for one week per month
patients takes less drug and save money

2

Amphotericin B

interferes with cell wall permeability
used for blood-borne, life threatening fungal infections
common serious side effect is renal toxicity
Piggyback drug in IV

3

Abelcet
AmBisome
Amphotec

lipid complex injectable forms of amphotericin B but is less toxic
administered by IV infusion
treats aspergillosis

4

Clotrimazole

supplied as a troche
especially effective against oral candidiasis

5

Flucytosine

syntergistic with amphotericin B and is usually used in combination with it

6

Griseofulvin

indicated for fungal infections of hair, skin, and nails
binds to human keratin giving resistance to infection
avoid sunlight while taking
Take with fatty meals

7

Ketoconazole

same side effects as most other antifungals
side effects are dependent on dose

8

Nystatin

most often used in liquid form to swish and swallow
used to treat oral candidiasis or other infections in mouth

9

Terbinafine

kills fungus instead of inhibiting growth
persists longer than other antifungals

10

Terconazole

prescription drug often given for vaginal infections as a result of antibiotic use

11

capsid

shell that protects nucleic acid of virus

12

envelope

membrane that covers the capsid that carries surface proteins to attach to host receptors

13

stages of infection

1. virus attaches to cell receptor
2. virus penetrates the cell as the membrane via endocytosis
3. virus escapes into cytoplasm
4. virus sheds its covering and presents its DNA or RNA to cell nucleus
5. virus converts nuclear activity in the cell to viral activity and produces new viral particles

14

acute viral infection

viral infection that quickly resolves itself
examples are common cold, influenza

15

chronic viral infection

infection that has protracted course with long periods of remission
example is herpes

16

slow viral infection

infection that maintains a progressive course over months or years that leads to death
example is HIV

17

latent virus

after a virus shows acute infection it can lie dormant and undetectable in a cell for a long period of time

18

Acyclovir

antiviral
interferes with viral DNA synthesis
treats genital herpes and varicella

19

Amantadine

antiviral
prevents absorption of viral particles into host cell
used in prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A
has some therapeutic effect on Parkinson's disease
If taken with caffeine or antihistamines it increases neurotoxicity

20

Cidofovir

antiviral
used to treat cytomegalovirus
can be dosed every two weeks intraveinously

21

Famciclovir

antiviral
used to manage multiple forms of herpes
is a prodrug (becomes active after metabolic processes in the body)

22

Foscarnet

antiviral
used in treating cytomegalovirus in immunocompromised patients
patient must be hydrated when taking

23

Ganciclovir

antiviral
used in treating cytomegalovirus in immunocompromised patients
must follow chemotherapy preparation guidelines when making
pregnant women should not handle this drug

24

Oseltamivir

antiviral
oral inhibitor of neruaminidase which is on the surface of the influenza virus
can reduce the duration of the flu

25

Ribavirin

antiviral
useful for treating pediatric patients with respiratory syncytial virus
maximal absorption occurs with use of aerosol generator

26

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)

antiretorviral class that prevents formation of a DNA copy of viral RNA
resembles a building block for DNA but lacks attachment site for next block to be added

27

non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)

antiretroviral that inhibits action of HIV reverse transcriptase by obstructing enzyme action

28

nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI)

antiretroviral that inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase by competing with natural nucleic acid building blocks

29

protease inhibitors

antiretroviral that inhibits formation of protease enzyme which cleaves HIV protein precursors

30

fusion inhibitor

antiretroviral that prevents HIV from entering immune cells