Test 2 ch 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 ch 6 Deck (59)
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1

Afferent

towards CNS

2

Efferent

away from CNS

3

CNS neurotransmitters

ACh, GABA, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate.

4

Primary PNS neurotransmitters

ACh, norepinephrine

5

Sympathetic nervous system transmitters

ACh, norepinephrine, dopamine, glutamine, epinephrine

6

Parasympathetic nervous system transmitters

ACh

7

alpha receptors

vasoconstriction, raises blood pressure, decongestion

8

beta-1 receptors

increase heart rate and contractive force of the heart.

9

beta-2 receptors

influence bronchodilation

10

Anticholinergic side effects

decreased GI motility
decreased sweating
decreased urination
dilated pupil and blurred vision
dry eyes
dry mouth

11

Goals of anesthesia

amnesia
adequate muscle relaxation
adequate ventilation
pain control

12

malignant hyperthermia

rare but serious side effect of anesthesia that is associated with an increase in intracellular calcium levels causing a rapid rise in body temperature

13

dantrolene (Dantrium)

IV drug used to treat malignant hyperthermia, as well as a skeletal muscle relaxant to treat MS, stroke, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries. Is thought to reduce muscle tone and metabolism. Is required to be in OR drug kits.

14

midazolam (Versed)

benzodiazepine that is used for induction, short procedures, and dental procedures. Has the fastest onset, greatest potency, and most rapid elimination of the benzodiazepines.

15

flumazenil (Romazicon)

antagonizes benzodiazepines by competing for receptor sites. it is used for complete or partial reversal of anesthesia.

16

naloxone (Narcan)

antagonizes benzodiazepines by competing for the opiate receptor sites. It has a greater affinity for the receptor than the narcotic, but its action is much shorter. Therefore this drug has to be administered repeated to obtain the desired effect.

17

nitrous oxide

Inhalant anesthetic, but not a very potent anesthetic. It is usually used with other agents. It reduces blood pressure and provides only analgesia. Is typically used in dental procedures

18

enflurane (Ethrane)

Inhalant anesthetic that has rapid induction and recovery Causes uterine relaxation so it cannot be used during labor.

19

propofol (Diprivan)

Injectable anesthetic, used for the maintenance of anesthesia, sedation, or treatment of agitation of patients.
changes urine color pink, green, or brown
its a white emulsion

20

fentanyl (Sublimaze)

Injectable anesthetic that is used extensively for open-heart surgery. Lozenge is used extensively with children and IV form in the OR. Has greater potency than morphine. Can also be administered as a patch which releases the drug into the bodies fat where it is slowly released.

21

alfentanil (Alfenta)

fentanyl derivative that is ultrashort acting (5-10 mins)

22

sufentanil (Sufenta)

fentanyl derivative five to ten times more potent than fentanyl

23

remifentanil (Ultiva)

fentanyl derivative that is the shortest acting opioid with a rapid offset.

24

ester anesthetics

type of anesthetic that is short acting and easily broken down

25

amide anesthetics

type of anesthetic that is difficult to break down so they are longer acting and eventually metabolized by liver enzymes.

26

anesthetic order of function loss

1. pain perception
2. temperature sensation
3. touch sensation
4. proprioception
5. skeletal muscle tone

27

lidocaine (Lidoderm)

local anesthetic that can be administered as a patch or adhesive strip. Should only be applied to intact skin so when applying do not place on irritated red skin.

28

acute pain

pain associated with trauma or surgery, usually easier to manage and disappears as the body heals

29

chronic nonmalignant pain

pain that may have a diagnosed or undiagnosed cause. The pain lasts for more than three months and may respond poorly to treatment.

30

chronic malignant pain

pain that accompanies a malignant disease and often increases in severity as disease progresses