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Flashcards in Test 2 ch 8 Deck (37)
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1

Epilepsy

fairly common neurologic disorder characterized by sudden and recurring seizures. Involves disturbances of neuronal electrical activity that interfere with normal brain function.
involves GABA (inhib) and glutamate (exc)

2

Seizure

caused by disordered abnormal electrical discharges in the cerebral cortex resulting in a change in behavior of which the patient is not aware.

3

tonic-clonic seizure (grand mal)

has two phases
first the body becomes rigid and patient may fall, lasting for a minute or less.
the second usually is initiated with muscle jerks, shallow breathing, loss of bladder control, and excess salivation, lasting for a few minutes.

4

absence seizure (petit mal)

begins with interruption of the patients activities by some of the following: blank stares, rotating eyes, uncontrolled facial movements, chewing, rapid eye blinking, twitching, etc, but no convulsions.
last 10 seconds to two minutes.
may have up to 100 attacks a day

5

myoclonic seizure

sudden massive brief muscle jerks which may throw the patient down, or nonmassive quick jerks of the the arm, hand, leg or foot. Consciousness is not lost.

6

atonic seizure

sudden loss of muscle tone and consciousness. Patient may collapse, head may drop and jaw may slacken.
last a few seconds to a minute.

7

status epilepticus

serious disorder involving continuous tonic-clonic convulsions with or without a return to consciousness that last at least 30 minutes.
Can cause brain damage
10% die regardless of treatment

8

Carbamazepine

prophylaxis of generalized tonic-clonic, partial, and mix partial or generalized seizures.
can also be used to treat bipolar disorders
blood monitoring is important because it induces its own metabolism
side effects: drowsiness, aplastic anemia

9

Diazepam

drug of choice for status epilepticus
given by IV, takes 30 to 60 seconds for effects to be come apparent

10

Gabapentin

used as an adjunct for non responsive treatment to partial and generalized seizures.
designed to mimic GABA
side effects: dizziness, ataxia, fatigue, tremors.
well-accepted treatment option for patients with neuropathic pain

11

Lamicital

therapy for adults with partial seizures with or without generalized secondary seizures
blocks sodium channels reducing neuron excitation.
has a black box warning about fatal rashes

12

Keppra

adjunctive therapy for partial seizures.
little potential for drug interactions

13

Trileptal

blocks voltage sensitive sodium channels and stabilizes hyperexcited neurons
used as an adjunct to other therapies
decreases effectiveness of birth control pills
potentially debilitating drowsiness

14

Dilantin

manages generalized tonic-clonic, simple-partial, and complex-partial seizures
need routine hepatic and hematologic tests while taking
must discontinue if even a mild rash appears
interacts with many other drugs
precipitates very quickly

15

Symmetrel

used to treat Parkinson's disease as well as prophylaxis and treatment for influenza
blocks dopamine reuptake

16

Sinemet

most commonly used drug for Parkinson's disease
crosses the blood-brain barrier and is then metabolized into dopamine
levodopa has undesirable side effects unless paired with carbidopa
on-off phenomenon where after about 5 years of use it no longer works

17

Mirapex

dopamine agonist that treats Parkinsons with less side effects than other drugs
needs to be prescribed early in the disease.
also approved for restless leg syndrome

18

Imuran

treats myasthenia gravis by suppressing cell-mediated hypersensitivity, altering antibody production, and reversing neuromuscular blockade

19

Baclofen

treats MS, spinal cord lesions, intractable hiccups, and bladder spasticity.
inhibits transmission of reflexes at the spinal cord

20

Zanaflex

reduces muscle spasticity in MS and spinal cord injuries
inhibits presynaptic motor neurons
first oral drug approved for spasticity since baclofen

21

Namenda

treats Alzheimers by blocking NMDA receptors that are excessively active
better tolerated than other drugs
optimal dose depends on the patient

22

Strattera

treats ADHD by selectively inhibiting reuptake of norepinephrine
only nonstimulant medication for ADHD
not a controlled substance so there is much lower risk of abuse

23

Adderall

control schedule 2
alternative to other stimulants
lasts about 6 hours
depression occurs as drug wears off

24

Vyvanse

Treats adhd
dextroamphetamine is chemically bonded to lysine
enzymes cleave off lysine which is supposed to reduce the abuse potential

25

Parkinson's disease

characterized by muscular difficulties and postural abnormalities
usually affects people over 60
signs are tremors, rigidity, and akinesia
involves dopamine (inhib.) and acetylcholine (exc.)

26

Myasthenia Gravis

disorder of the interface between nervesa nd muscles resulting in autoimmune damage to Ach receptors at motor end plate
characterized by weakness and fatigability, ptosis, diplopia, and then dysarthria
involves acetylcholine

27

ptosis

paralytic drooping of upper eyelid

28

diplopia

double vision, eyes cannot focus on one target

29

dysarthria

imperfect articulation of speech

30

ALS

progressive degenerative disease of the nerves that leads to muscle weakness, paralysis and eventually death.
caused by excessive levels of glutamate