Flashcards in Test 2 ch 8 Deck (37)
fairly common neurologic disorder characterized by sudden and recurring seizures. Involves disturbances of neuronal electrical activity that interfere with normal brain function.
involves GABA (inhib) and glutamate (exc)
caused by disordered abnormal electrical discharges in the cerebral cortex resulting in a change in behavior of which the patient is not aware.
tonic-clonic seizure (grand mal)
has two phases
first the body becomes rigid and patient may fall, lasting for a minute or less.
the second usually is initiated with muscle jerks, shallow breathing, loss of bladder control, and excess salivation, lasting for a few minutes.
absence seizure (petit mal)
begins with interruption of the patients activities by some of the following: blank stares, rotating eyes, uncontrolled facial movements, chewing, rapid eye blinking, twitching, etc, but no convulsions.
last 10 seconds to two minutes.
may have up to 100 attacks a day
sudden massive brief muscle jerks which may throw the patient down, or nonmassive quick jerks of the the arm, hand, leg or foot. Consciousness is not lost.
sudden loss of muscle tone and consciousness. Patient may collapse, head may drop and jaw may slacken.
last a few seconds to a minute.
serious disorder involving continuous tonic-clonic convulsions with or without a return to consciousness that last at least 30 minutes.
Can cause brain damage
10% die regardless of treatment
prophylaxis of generalized tonic-clonic, partial, and mix partial or generalized seizures.
can also be used to treat bipolar disorders
blood monitoring is important because it induces its own metabolism
side effects: drowsiness, aplastic anemia
drug of choice for status epilepticus
given by IV, takes 30 to 60 seconds for effects to be come apparent
used as an adjunct for non responsive treatment to partial and generalized seizures.
designed to mimic GABA
side effects: dizziness, ataxia, fatigue, tremors.
well-accepted treatment option for patients with neuropathic pain
therapy for adults with partial seizures with or without generalized secondary seizures
blocks sodium channels reducing neuron excitation.
has a black box warning about fatal rashes
adjunctive therapy for partial seizures.
little potential for drug interactions
blocks voltage sensitive sodium channels and stabilizes hyperexcited neurons
used as an adjunct to other therapies
decreases effectiveness of birth control pills
potentially debilitating drowsiness
manages generalized tonic-clonic, simple-partial, and complex-partial seizures
need routine hepatic and hematologic tests while taking
must discontinue if even a mild rash appears
interacts with many other drugs
precipitates very quickly
used to treat Parkinson's disease as well as prophylaxis and treatment for influenza
blocks dopamine reuptake
most commonly used drug for Parkinson's disease
crosses the blood-brain barrier and is then metabolized into dopamine
levodopa has undesirable side effects unless paired with carbidopa
on-off phenomenon where after about 5 years of use it no longer works
dopamine agonist that treats Parkinsons with less side effects than other drugs
needs to be prescribed early in the disease.
also approved for restless leg syndrome
treats myasthenia gravis by suppressing cell-mediated hypersensitivity, altering antibody production, and reversing neuromuscular blockade
treats MS, spinal cord lesions, intractable hiccups, and bladder spasticity.
inhibits transmission of reflexes at the spinal cord
reduces muscle spasticity in MS and spinal cord injuries
inhibits presynaptic motor neurons
first oral drug approved for spasticity since baclofen
treats Alzheimers by blocking NMDA receptors that are excessively active
better tolerated than other drugs
optimal dose depends on the patient
treats ADHD by selectively inhibiting reuptake of norepinephrine
only nonstimulant medication for ADHD
not a controlled substance so there is much lower risk of abuse
control schedule 2
alternative to other stimulants
lasts about 6 hours
depression occurs as drug wears off
dextroamphetamine is chemically bonded to lysine
enzymes cleave off lysine which is supposed to reduce the abuse potential
characterized by muscular difficulties and postural abnormalities
usually affects people over 60
signs are tremors, rigidity, and akinesia
involves dopamine (inhib.) and acetylcholine (exc.)
disorder of the interface between nervesa nd muscles resulting in autoimmune damage to Ach receptors at motor end plate
characterized by weakness and fatigability, ptosis, diplopia, and then dysarthria
paralytic drooping of upper eyelid
double vision, eyes cannot focus on one target
imperfect articulation of speech