The Brainstem Flashcards Preview

Block 5 module 3 COPY > The Brainstem > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Brainstem Deck (77):
1

the brainstem is made up of

medulla oblongata
pons
midbrain

2

the brainstem occupies the ________ of the skull

posterior cranial fossa

3

the brainstem extends from the _______ to the __________

pyramidal decussation to the posterior commisure

4

blood supply of the brainstem

vertebrobasilar

5

the brainstem contains all the important nuclei of CN ____

3-12

6

the brainstem contains important reflex centers associated with the control of _____

respiration and the CV system and control of consciousness

7

smallest and least differentiated division of brainstem

midbrain (mesencephalon)

8

the midbrain comprises 2 lateral halves called the

cerebral peduncles

9

the midbrain is divided into

anterior crus cerebri and posterior tegmentum

10

the midbrain mediates what reflexes

auditory and visual

11

the midbrain contains

substantia nigra
largest nucleus of Mb and paramedian reticular formation

12

the midbrain extends from the _____ to the _____

superior medullary velum to the posterior commisure

13

3 parts of midbrain

1. Tectum
2. Tegmentum
3. Crura Cerebri

14

the tectum lie dorsal to

cerebral aqueduct

15

the tectum is formed by

2 pairs of colliculi and corpora qaudrigemina

16

the superior and inferior colliculi together with the corpora qaudrigemina forms the

tectum

17

contain neurons that receive visual as
well as other input and serve ocular reflexes

superior colliculi

18

involved in auditory reflexes and in
determining side on which sound originates

inferior colliculi

19

round eminences on posterior
surface.

corpora quadrigemina

20

central part of the midbrain

tegmentum

21

the tegmentum is ventral to

cerebral aqueduct

22

the tegmentum contains

1. oculomotor nuclei
2. mesenphalic
3. reticular formation
red nuclei

23

the red nucleus receives

crossed efferent fibers from cerebellum

24

the red nucleus is characterized by

pinkish yellow color (high vascularization)

25

the red nucleus sends fibers to

thalamus and contralateral spinal cord

26

the red nucleus is an important component for

motor coordination

27

this contains descending cortical projections

crura cerebri

28

the crura cerebri contains _______ projections

descending cortical

29

this contributes to the formation of crossed tectospinal tracts

colliculi

30

the colliculi contributes to the formation of

crossed tectospinal tracts

31

deep depression in the midline

interpeduncular fossa

32

boundary of interpeduncular fossa

crus cerebri

33

region where many small
blood vessels perforate the floor of interpeduncular fossa

Posterior perforated substance

34

emerges from a groove on medial
side of crus ceribri

occulomotor nerve

35

Separates tectum from tegmentum

Cerebral aqueduct

36

Separates midbrain tegmentum from crus cerebri

Substantia nigra

37

Contains descending autonomic tracts, endorphinproducing
cells (suppress pain)

Periaqueductal Gray matter

38

Contains efferent fibers from dentate nucleus of cerebellum
to opposite red nucleus and vental spinocerebellar tracts

Superior Cerebellar Peduncle

39

the inferior colliculus forms part of the

auditory pathway

40

superior colliculus forms part of the

visual reflexes

41

what connects the superior colliculus to the lateral geniculate body

superior brachium

42

the pons contains

auditory relay nuclei and vestibular nuclei

43

the pons is connected to the cerebellum by

middle cerebellar peduncle

44

the facial and abducens nucleus forms the

facial colliculus

45

CN found in pons

5-8

46

the dorsal tegmental portion of the pons is a continuation of the

reticular formation of the medulla oblongata

47

in the lower part of the pons are collected into a distinct
strand, named the

trapezoid body.

48

In the substance of the trapezoid body is a collection of
nerve cells, which constitutes the

trapezoid nucleus

49

continuous with those of the medulla oblongata

longitudinal fibers

50

small mass of gray substance situated on the dorsal
surface of the lateral part of the trapezoid body

superior olivary nucleus

51

most caudal segment of the brainstem

medulla oblongata

52

appearance of pyramids on anterior surface partially
obliterates the

anterior median fissure

53

swelling on each side of the median fissure,

pyramid

54

the pyramid is composed of

bundles of nerve fibers and corticospinal fibers

55

oval elevations produced by underlying inferior olivary
nuclei

olives

56

emerge from the groove between pyramid
and olive

hypoglossal nerve

57

the hypoglossal nerve emerge from

groove between pyrmaid and olive

58

posterior to olives, connect
medulla to cerebellum

inferior cerebellar peduncles

59

elongated swelling produced by gracile
nucleus

gracile tubercle

60

swelling lateral to gracile tubercle, produced
by underlying cuneate nucleus

cuneate tubercle

61

the supraspinal nucleus is composed of

somatic motor neurons extending to the lower medulla

62

the fiber tracts of white matter have the same arrangements as in

cervical spinal segments

63

a stalk-like bundle of fibers containing 1 or
more axon tracts.

peduncle

64

all fibers of the inferior cerebellar peduncle are ______ to the ______

afferent to the cerebellum

65

Cell groups lying along the midline of medulla, pons, and
midbrain.

raphe nuclei

66

the raphe nuclei and midbrain are sources of

ascending projections

67

tectospinal tract mediates ________ in
response to____ stimuli

reflex postural movements; visual and auditory

68

the corticoreticular fibers terminate in

portions of the pons and medulla

69

the cerebelloreticular fibers terminate in the

paramedian reticular nuclei

70

the cerebelloreticular fibers originate from

fastigial and dentate nuclei

71

the central tegmental tract terminate in

intralaminar and thalamic nuclei

72

the central tegmental tract plays an important role in

mechanism of arousal and sleep

73

caused when one hemisphere swells and pushes the
cingulate gyrus by the falx cerebri

cingulate or subfalcine herniation

74

consist of caudal displacement of the diencephalon,
midbrain and pons

central herniation

75

ncrease pressure to the cerebellar fossa
causes the cerebellum to move up through the tentorial opening

cerebellar herniation

76

The cerebellar tonsils herniate through the foramen in
magnum in

tonsillar herniation

77

in tonsillar herniation the cerebellar tonsils herniate through the

foramen magnum