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Flashcards in The Design Argument Deck (51)
0

how did aquinas develop his design argument?

from aristotle, cicero & islamic philosophy

1

what does an acorn to an oak tree symbolise?

purpose

2

what does arrow to archer symbolise?

purpose and direction

3

qua purpose

all things have a telos

4

what did hume reject in his critique?

a priori reasoning

5

who were the 4 characters hume used?

Pamphilus
Cleanthes
Philo
Deniea

6

who were the two key characters out of the four presented by hume?

Philo and Cleanthes

7

what role did cleanthes play?

beliefs from the teleological argument

8

what role did philo play?

hume himself (own position)

9

what does philo (hume) say?

-producer (god) must be inefficient
- many gods - anthropomorphic - uneducated gods
- design implies designer
- order is not the same as design

10

what assumptions do people make? DESIGN ARGUMENT

that things would always end up how they do/have

11

what was paley's analogy?

qua order

12

who was paley aware of when he wrote the blind watchmaker?

hume

13

who was paley highly influenced by?

charles darwin and utilitarianism

14

what kind of argument is paley's?

inductive - observed premises

15

what is the most likely explination/most persuaive? DESIGN ARGUMENTS

god

16

what isn't paley seeking to do?

not to prove god's existence but that god offers the best explination

17

what did dawkins say?

god is irrelevant - natural selection is key

18

what is dawkins arguing?

brute fact (simpler and more ellegant)

19

what is the most plausible explanation of design? SWINBURNE

1. infinite number of universes
2. we are here. it just happened.
3.intelligence behind the universe

20

what kind of argument is the teleological argument?

a posteriori, inductive, synthetic

21

what are teleological arguments?

arguments for the existence of god by observing the design in the universe

22

what are the two types of design argument?

design qua regularity - aquinas
design qua purpose -paley

23

when was paley's argument put forward?

in the early 19th century

24

what does paley's argument suggest?

that everything is designed to fulfil a purpose (uses the analogy of the watch)

25

what are the 4 steps of paley's watch analogy?

1)imagine finding a watch on a heath, it is very complex
2) therefore it must have been designed
3) design implies designer
4) therefore the watch must have been designed by a designer

26

what can paley's watch analogy be applied to?

the universe

27

what are there clear signs of in the universe?

design and purpose

28

what does design imply?

a designer

29

is design implies designer, what must there be?

a designer, who is thought to be god

30

what does paley argue about god's existence?

god necessarily exists due to the need for a designer

31

what does aquinas's argument suggest?

that the designer starts off a chain of design one thing after another

32

what does paley's argument suggest?

everything fitting together or a purpose like machine (product of enlightenment thinking)

33

what did FR Tennant put forward an argument for?

suggests that the needs of humanity have been provided for, therefore suggesting the existence of a designer

34

what did richard swinburne suggest?

that the probability of humanity coming into existence is so huge that it is probable that there is an intelligent designer behind the universe

35

where did david hume criticise the argument?

in his 'dialogues on religion'

36

what did hume use to criticise the argument?

4 characters

37

what character was used in hume's 1st and 2nd reply?

philo

38

when were hume's replies written in relation to paley's argument?

23 years prior to paley's argument - paley was aware of hume's criticisms before hand

39

what did hume say that our knowledge of god's designing makes god? hume's first reply

1)like effects presupppose like causes therefore if we are designed by god does that make him just a superhuman figure

40

what did hume say regarding evidence of good design? hume's first reply

although there is evidence of good design in the universe, there is also evidence of bad design

41

where does the idea of multiple god's come from? hume's first reply

strong links between design IN the universe and design OF the universe

humans collaborate to make something, maybe many god's did too

42

what happens if you say that there are only weak links between design IN the universe and design OF the universe? hume's first reply

whole argument is weakened?

43

what was hume's second reply?

1) it is perfectly possible for order to come out of chaos

2)an infinite number of combinations of universes are possible

44

what does hume say we should do following his first and second replies?

SUSPEND JUDGEMENT on whether there is a God

45

what is JS Mills statement on nature? CRITICISM

nature commits terrible crimes that humans would be punished for

46

what does JS Mill say on suffering and the design of the universe?

there is so much suffering in the world that it could not be the design of an omnipotent, omniscient and omnibenevolent god

47

what does JS Mill reject?

the god of classical theism and the design argument of paley and aquinas

48

what did charles darwin say about the design argument?

read paley's argument and thought it was really good, but felt that his theory of evolution proved the argument wrong

49

why does richard dawkins reject the argument?

he says that faith is anti-intellectual

50

why does dawkins say there is not design of the universe?

because it is just natural selection and we are just slaves to our genes