Thoracic Vertebra Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Thoracic Vertebra Deck (119):
1

What features will allow discrimination between T2-T4 and T5-T8 segmental groups?

Vertebral body
Transverse process
Articular process
Spinous process

2

What is the outline of the vertebral body of a typical thoracic from superior view?

Triangular

3

On cranial view, what is the outline of the vertebral body for the T5-T8 group?

Left side of the vertebral body will be flattened and the right side convex

4

What is the name given to the left side appearance of the vertebral body of T5-T8?

Aortic impression

5

What part of the vertebral body is most influenced by the aorta at T5-T8?

Left side of the superior and inferior epiphyseal rims

6

What is the height pattern of the typical thoracic vertebral body?

Posterior height is greater than the anterior height by one to two millimeters

7

What is the principal cause of the posterior curve of the thoracic spine?

vertebral body height differences

8

In terms of the anterior-posterior curves of the vertebral column, what direction will the thoracic spine face?

Posterior

9

What is another way of naming a posterior curve pattern?

Kyphotic curve

10

What joint classifications are identified at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

11

How many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

4

12

How many symphysis joints are formed with the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

2

13

How many syndesmosis joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

Typically 4 are identified (as many as 8 if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

14

How many joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

Typically 10 (fourteen if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

15

What is the name given to the joint formed between the vertebral body and rib?

Costocentral joint

16

How many costocentral joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

4

17

Which of the demi-facets on the vertebral body of a typical thoracic is larger?

Superior costal demi-facet

18

What ligaments support the costocentral joint?

Costocentral stellate/radiate ligament
Costocentral interarticular or intra-articular ligament

19

The costocentral stellate/ radiate ligament will attach to which segments at the T3 spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

Vertebral body of T3
Vertebral body of T4

20

Which muscle is attached to the vertebral body of T2 or T3?

Longus colli

21

Which X-ray view is used to see into the intervertebral foramen of a typical thoracic?

Lateral view

22

What is overlap of the lamina called in the typical thoracic region?

Shingling

23

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen in the typical thoracic region?

Oval or circular

24

In which plane will the size of the vertebral foramen of a typical thoracic be greatest?

Transverse plane
Vertebral transverse diameter

25

What are the osseous parts of the costotransverse joint?

Transverse costal facet
Articular surface of the tubercle of a rib

26

What ligaments support the costotransverse joint of a typical thoracic?

Superior costotransverse ligament
Inferior costotransverse ligament
Lateral costotransverse ligament

27

Which muscles may attach to the transverse process of a typical thoracic?

Longissimus thoracis
Longissimus cervicis
Longissimus capitis
Semispinalis thoracis
Semispinalis cervicis
Semispinalis capitis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Intertransversarii
Levator costarum longus
Levator costarum brevis

28

How can you distinguish between a T2-T4 from T5-T8 segment using the articular process?

T2-T4: the width between the superior articular process is greater than the width between the inferior articular process of that vertebra
T5-T8: the width between the superior articular process is equal to or the same as the width between the inferior articular processes of that vertebra

29

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of a typical thoracic?

They face backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)

30

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of a typical thoracic?

They face forward, downward, and medial (ForMeD)

31

How many synovial joints are present at a typical thoracic?

10

32

How many synovial joint surfaces for ribs are present on a typical thoracic?

6

33

What is the name given to the overlap of spinous processes in the thoracic region?

Imbrication

34

Imbrication will be more pronounced for what region of the thoracics?

T5-T8

35

Which thoracic has the longest spinous process?

T8

36

What is the angulation of the spinous process in the typical thoracic region?

Undersurface of T2-T4 processes will angle up to forty degrees from the horizontal plane
Undersurface of T5-T8 processes will angle up to sixty degrees from the horizontal plane

37

Which muscles may attach to the spinous process of a typical thoracic?

Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
Rhomboid major
Serratus posterior superior
Splenius cervicis
Splenius capitis
Spinalis thoracis
Spinalis cervicis
Spinalis capitis
Semispinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Interspinalis

38

What joint classifications are identified at the vertebral body of T1?

Fibrous (amphiathrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia joint)
Modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) only as variation

39

What are the osseous parts of the costotransverse joint of T1?

Transverse costal facet
Articular surface of the tubercle of a rib

40

What ligaments support the costotransverse joint of T1?

Inferior costotransverse ligament
Lateral costotransverse ligament

41

What ligament is absent at the costotransverse joint of T1?

Superior costotransverse ligament

42

The superior costotransverse ligament of the transvere process of T1 will attach to which rib?

2nd rib

43

What muscles attach to the transverse process of T1?

Longissimus thoracis
Longissimus cervicis
Longissimus capitis
Semispinalis cervicis
Semispinalis capitis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Intertransversarii
Levator costarum brevis

44

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of T1?

They face backward, upward, lateral (BUL)

45

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of T1?

They face forward, downward, medial (ForMeD)

46

How many synovial joints are present at T1?

10

47

What muscles attach to the spinous process of T1?

Trapezius
Rhomboid minor
Serratus posterior superior
Splenius capitis
Spinalis thoracis
Spinalis cervicis
Spinalis capitis
Semispinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Interspinalis

48

Which muscles attach to the transverse process of T9?

Longissimus thoracis
Semispinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Intertransversarii
Levator costarum longus
Levator costarum brevis

49

How many synovial joints are typically present at T9?

10

50

Identify the synovial joint surfaces typically present on T9?

2 superior costal demi-facets
2 inferior costal demi-facets
2 superior articular facets
2 inferior articular facets
2 transverse costal facets

51

How many synovial joint surfaces for ribs are typically present on T9?

6

52

What is the generic appearance of the spinous process of T9?

Shorter and more horizontal

53

What muscles attach to the spinous process of T9?

Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Interspinalis

54

Which muscles are conspicuously absent at the T9 spinous process?

Spinalis
Semispinalis

55

How many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of T10?

2

56

How many symphysis joints are formed with the vertebral body of T10?

2

57

How many syndesmosis joints are formed at the vertebral body of T10?

Typically 4 are identified (as many as 8 if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

58

How many joints are typically formed at the vertebral body of T10?

Typically 8 (12 if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

59

Which synovial joint surface is absent from the vertebral body of T10?

Inferior costal demi-facets

60

Para-articular processes are more commonly observed on which segment of the spine?

T10

61

The superior costotransverse ligament of the T10 transverse process will attach to which rib?

11th rib

62

What muscles attach to the transverse process of T10?

Longissimus thoracis
Semispinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Intertransversarii
Levator costarum longus
Levator costarum brevis

63

Identify the synovial joint surfaces typically present on T10?

2 superior costal facets
2 transverse costal facets
2 superior articular facets
2 inferior articular facets

64

Which rib related facet is absent on T10?

Inferior costal demi-facet

65

A dimpling or depression of the skin in the thoracic region is often a characteristic of the location of which segment?

T10

66

What mucles attach to the spinous process of T10?

Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Interspinalis

67

Which erector spinae muscles will not attach to the spinous process of T10?

Spinalis
Longissimus
Iliocostalis

68

What joint classifications are present at T10?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

69

What is the name given to T11?

Anticlinal vertebrae

70

What is the outline of the vertebral body of T11 on superior view?

Kidney-shaped or reniform

71

How many joints are typically formed at the vertebral body of T11?

Typically 8 (12 if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

72

Which ligaments of the costocentral joint is absent for the 11th rib?

Costocentral interarticular or intra-articular ligament

73

Which vertebrae is the largest segment to demonstrate a transverse costal facet?

T10

74

What ligaments form the costotransverse joint of T11?

Superior costotransverse
Slightly developed inferior costotransverse
Lateral costotransverse

75

Which costotransverse ligaments are absent at T11?

Capsular costotransverse ligament

76

What muscles attach to the transverse process of T11?

Longissimus thoracis
Semispinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Intertransversarii
Levator costarum brevis

77

Which segment will be the last to demonstrate an attachment for the levator costarum longus?

T10

78

How many synovial joints are typically present at T11?

6

79

What muscles attach to the spinous process of T11?

Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
Serratus posterior inferior
Iliocostalis lumborum
Spinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Interspinalis

80

At which segments of the thoracic spine will the spinalis muscle not attach?

T9
T10

81

Which muscles of the 5 layers of the true back are present at the spinous process of T11?

Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
Serratus posterior inferior
Iliocostalis lumborum
Spinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis

82

How many synovial joints are formed with the vertebral body of T12?

2

83

How many symphysis joints are formed at the vertebral body of T12?

2

84

How many joints are typically formed at the vertebral body of T12?

Typically 8 (10 if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

85

Which muscles attaching to the T11 spinous process would be representative of layer four?

Iliocostalis lumborum
Spinalis thoracis

86

What joint classifications are present at T11?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

87

What is another way of naming a posterior curve pattern?

Kyphotic curve

88

What joint classifications are identified at the vertebral body of T12?

Fibrous (amohiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

89

What muscles are attached to the vertebral body of T12?

Psoas major
Psoas minor

90

What does the lateral tubercle of T12 represent?

Transverse process

91

What does the superior tubercle of T12 represent?

Mammillary process of lumbar vertebrae

92

What does the inferior tubercle of T12 represent?

Accessory process of lumbar vertebrae

93

What ligaments form the costotransverse joint of the 12th rib?

Superior costotransverse ligament from T11
Lumbocostal ligament from L1

94

Which costotrasnverse ligaments are attached to T12?

None

95

Which costotransverse ligaments lack an attachment to T12?

Capsular costotransverse
Superior costotransverse
Inferior costotransverse
Lateral costotransverse

96

What muscles attach to the transverse process region of T12?

Longissimus thoracis
Semispinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Intertransversarii

97

Which rib-associated muscle is absent at the transverse process region of T12?

Levator costarum

98

Which segment is the last to demonstrate a levator costarum brevis attachment?

T11

99

Which segment is the last to demonstrate a levator costarum longus attachment?

T10

100

What is the orientation of the superior articular surface of T12?

Backward, upward, lateral (BUL)

101

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of T12?

Forward, downward, lateral (FoLD)

102

How many synovial joints are typically present at T12?

6

103

Identify the synovial joint surfaces typically present at T12?

2 superior costal facets
2 superior articular facets
2 inferior articular facets

104

Which muscles attach to the spinous process of T12?

Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
Serratus posterior inferior
iliocostalis lumborum
Spinalis thoracis
Multifidis
Rotator longus
Rotator brevis
Interspinalis

105

Which erector spinae muscle is unique in its attachment to the T12 spinous process?

Iliocostalis lumborum

106

Which muscle attaching to the T12 spinous process are representative of layer 3?

Serratus posterior inferior

107

What joint classifications are present at T12?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
Synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia

108

Which muscles attach tot he vertebral body of thoracic vertebrae?

Longus colli
Psoas major
Psoas minor

109

Which thoracic segments will have muscles attaching to their vertebral bodies?

T1-T3
T12

110

Which thoracic segment is the last to demonstrate the attachment of the levator costarum brevis?

T11

111

Which thoracic segment is first to demonstrate the attchment of the levator costarum longus?

T7

112

Which thoracic segment is last to demonstrate the attachment of the levator costarum longus?

T10

113

Rhomboid major and rhomboid minor will attach to the spinous process of which thoracics?

T1 only

114

Which thoracic vertebrae will demonstrate a spinous process attachment for the serratus posterior superior?

T1-T3

115

Which thoracic vertebrae will demonstrate a spinous process attachment for the serratus posterior inferior?

T11-T12

116

Which thoracic vertebrae will demonstrate a spinous process attachment for the splenius muscles?

T1-T6

117

Which thoracics demonstrate a spinous process attachment for the iliocostalis lumborum?

T11-T12

118

Which thoracic vertebrae lack any spinalis muscle group attachment on their spinous process?

T9-T10

119

Which thoracic is the last to demonstrate a spinous process attachment for the semispinalis?

T6