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Flashcards in Tumor Markers Deck (44)
1

Define Tumor Markers

Glycoprotein molecules in the blood that are detected by monoclonal antibodies

2

Usefulness of Tumor Markers

Screening
Determining diagnosis & prognosis
Assessing response to therapy
Monitoring for CA recurrence

3

Where are tumor markers found?

Blood
Urine
Body tissue

4

Function of Tumor Markers

Help detect, diagnose & manage some types of cancers

5

"Ideal" Tumor Marker

Highly specific to a specific cancer
Highly sensitive
Long lead time
Levels correlate with tumor burden

6

Limitations of Tumor Markers

Elevated marker level may be caused by another condition/disease
Some levels may be high in people without cancer
Levels may vary over time
Almost everyone has small amount of a marker
Levels get higher only when large amount of cancer present
Some people with cancer never have high levels

7

Multiple Factors with Tumor Markers

Persons age & gender
Which test kit the alb uses
How test is done

8

CA 15-3 & CA 27.29 Cancer Type

Breast Cancer

9

CA 15-3 & CA 27.29 Tissue Analyzed

Blood

10

How is CA 15-3 & CA 27-29 used?

Assess whether treatment is working or disease has reocurred

11

What Cancers is CA15-3 & CA 270-29 found in?

Colon
Gastric
Hepatic
Lung
Pancreatic
Ovarian
Prostate

12

Benign Conditions that CA15-3 & CA27-29 are found in?

Kidney disease
Cystic disease

13

CEA Cancer Type

Colorectal
Breast

14

CEA Tissue Analyzed

Blood

15

How is CEA used?

Check if colorectal cancer has spread
Look for breast cancer recurrence
Assess breast cancer response to treatment

16

What is CEA found in?

Breast
Lung
Gastric
Thyroid
Lymphoma
Melanoma

17

Benign Conditions with Elevated CEA

Cigarette smoking
PUD
IMBS
Pancreatitis
Cirhosis
Hyperthyroidism

18

Cancer Types for CA 19-9

Pancreatic (most common)
Gallbaldder
Bile duct
Gastric CA

19

Tissue Analyzed for CA 19-9

Blood

20

How is CA 19-9 used?

Assess if treatment is working

21

CA 19-9 Found in

Colon
Esophageal
Hepatic

22

AFP Cancer Types

Liver
Germ cell tumors

23

Tissue Anayzed for AFP

Blood

24

How is AFP used?

Help diagnose liver cancer & follows response to treatment
Assess stage, prognosis, & response to treatment of germ cell tumors

25

AFT Found In

Gastric CA
Biliary CA
Pancreatic CA

26

Benign Conditions with Elevated AFP

Cirrhosis
Hepatitis
Pregnancy

27

B-HCG Cancer Types

Choriocarcinoma
Testicular CA

28

Tissue Analyzed for B-HCG

Urine
Blood

29

How is B-HCG used?

Assess stage, prognosis, & response to treatment
Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors

30

B-HCG Found In

Gastrointestinal CA

31

Benign Conditions with Elevated B-HCG

Pregnancy
Hypogonadism
Marijuana use

32

CA 125 Cancer Type

Ovarian CA

33

Tissue Analyze for CA 125

Blood

34

How is CA 125 used?

Help diagnose, assessment of response to treatment and evaluations

35

CA 125 Found In

Endometrial
Fallopian tube
Breast
Lung
Esophageal
Hepatic

36

Benign Conditions with Elevated CA 125

Menstruation
Fibroids
Cirrhoidsis
Ascites
Pregnancy

37

PSA Cancer Type

Prostate CA

38

Tissue Analyzed for PSA

Blood

39

How is PSA used?

Help diagnose, assess response to treatment, & look for recurrence

40

PSA Found In

Prostate CA

41

Benign Conditions with Elevated PSA

Prostatitis
Prostate hypertrophy
Post ejaculation

42

What medications will decrease the PSA by half?

Finasteride (Proscar)
Dutasteride (Avodart)

43

Screening of PSA

Not recommended in average risk 40-54 year olds
Discussion about risk vs. benefits in 55-69 year olds

44

Post Treatment PSA

Rise in levels after radical prostatectomy suggest recurrence