Unit VII - Sympathetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit VII - Sympathetics Deck (94)
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1

Where are the cell bodies located for preganglionic sympathetic neurons?

Lateral horn of cord levels T1-L2 or L3

2

Preganglionic sympathetic neurons exit the cord via what structure?

Anterior rootlets

3

Preganglionic sympathetic neurons follow what structure during their course?

Anterior primary ramus

4

How do preganglionic sympathetic neurons enter the sympathetic trunk?

Via white ramus communicans

5

Where do most preganglionic sympathetic neurons synapse?

On postganglionic cells in ganglia of the sympathetic trunk

6

Where do preganglionic sympathetic neurons synapse if they pass through the sympathetic trunk?

Prevertebral plexuses associated with abdominopelvic viscera

7

Preganglionic sympathetic neurons that pass through the sympathetic trunk are carried in what nerves?

Splanchnic nerves

8

What primary neurotransmitter is released by preganglionic sympathetic fibers?

Acetylcholine

9

What primary neurotransmitter is released by postganglionic sympathetic fibers?

Norepinephrine

10

Celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior hypogastric plexuses are examples of what kind of plexuses?

Prevertebral

11

What is the name for the two paravertebral columns of interconnected ganglia involved in sympathetic pathways?

Sympathetic trunk

12

What general types of fibers are contained in the sympathetic trunk?

BOTH ascending and descending

13

What is the beginning and end of the sympathetic trunk?

Beginning = superior cervical ganglion
End = Ganglion impar

14

What is the term for the location where the right and left trunks of the sympathetic trunk connect?

Ganglion impar

15

About how many ganglia are seen in each sympathetic trunk?

21 or 22
Cervical - 3
Thoracic - 11
Lumbar - 4
Sacral - 4

16

What would be the reason for seeing 21 sympathetic trunk ganglia instead of 22?

Formation of a stellate ganglion via fusion of the lowest cervical and highest thoracic ganglia

17

Where does the sympathetic trunk lie in the cervical region?

Posterior to carotid sheath

18

Where does the sympathetic trunk lie in the upper thoracic region?

Anterior to the necks of the ribs

19

Where does the sympathetic trunk lie in the lower thoracic and lumbar areas?

Resting on lateral aspect of the vertebral bodies (more medially as they descend)

20

Where does the sympathetic trunk lie in the sacrococcygeal region?

Anterior aspect of sacrum, eventually joining at the level of the coccyx

21

The cervical sympathetic trunk lies between what structures?

Carotid sheath and longus colli and capitis muscles

22

In which part of the sympathetic trunk do we NOT see white rami communicans?

Cervical sympathetic trunk and ganglia

23

What are the names of the cervical ganglia?

Superior, middle, and inferior (usually 3)

24

What forms the stellate ganglion?

Inferior cervical ganglion with first thoracic ganglion

25

What is the largest of the cervical sympathetic ganglia?

Superior cervical ganglion

26

What forms the superior cervical ganglion?

Union of upper four cervical ganglion

27

Where is the superior cervical ganglion located?

At C2-C3 level, between carotid sheath and longus capitis muscle

28

Postganglionic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion are distributed in what branches?

Anterior, medial, or lateral

29

Which postganglionic branches of the superior cervical ganglion are the gray rami communicans that communicate with the anterior primary rami of C1-C4 and some cranial nerves (IX, X, XII)?

Lateral branches

30

Which postganglionic branches of the superior cervical ganglion travel to the larynx, pharynx, and heart?

Medial branches