Uterine tumours  Flashcards Preview

Oncology > Uterine tumours  > Flashcards

Flashcards in Uterine tumours  Deck (20):

Epidemiology of uterine tumors

Most common pelvic gynecological tumor. Most women diagnosed with endometrial cancer are either peri or postmenopausal.


Etiology of uterine tumors

-hormone dependent
Risk factors include...
-Early menarche
-Previous hormone therapy or breast cancer
-Older age
-Never being pregnant
-HNPCC (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer)


How many types of endometrial cancer are there? Which is more common?

2 types. Type 1 is more common


Type 1 endometrial cancer develops from? Pts are usually?

Type 1 endometrial cancer usually develops from endometrial hyperplasia. Patients are usually obese (BMI>30) with hypertension and diabetes. This cancer tends to be due to hyper-estrogenism (a ovulation year bleeding, infertility, late menopause)


Type 2 endometrial cancer patients type? Which type of endometrial cancer is worst?

Tend to show no sign of estrogen-induced obesity (tend to be normal or thin, with no hyperplasia in history).

Type 2 endometrial cancer grows rapidly and metastasizes early.


Type 1 endometrial cancer
Stage at diagnosis?
Molecular alterations?

-Grade is low.
-Histology is endometrioid .
-Stage at diagnosis is I or II.
-Molecular alteration is PTEN, MSI, B-catenin


Type 2 endometrial cancer
Stage at diagnosis?
Molecular alterations?

Type 1 endometrial cancer
Grade is high.
Histology is serous or clear cell.
Stage at diagnosis is III or IV.
Molecular alterations are HER2/neu, p53.


The three groups of precancerous cellular classifications exist? What do most women complain of before hysteroscopy and biopsy?

-Non-atypical endometrial intra epithelial neoplasia
-Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia
-Well differentiated endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia

Complaints of post-menopausal bleeding.


What is indicated in the case severe endometrial intrapitelial neoplasia?

Hysterectomy or progesterone treatment to atrophy mucosa if younger than 30 years of age


The most common endometrial cancer types are?

Epithelial tumors:
-Adenosquamous cancer
-Clear-cell cancer
-Serous-papillary carcinoma


How many grades are giving to histological presence of endometrial cancer

3 grades


Histopathological subtypes of endometrial carcinoma group and subgroup 1

Endometrioid adenocarcinoma (most common)
-Villoglandular (papillary)
-Ciliated cell


Histopathological subtypes of endometrial carcinoma group and subgroup 2

Adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation
-Mucinous carcinoma
-Serous carcinoma
-Clear cell carcinoma
-Squamous cell carcinoma
-Undifferentiated carcinoma
-Mixed carcinoma
-Metastatic carcinoma


Stage 1 of FIGO staging of endometrial carcinoma

Cancer is found only in your uterus


Stage II endometrial cancer in FIGO staging

Cancer is present in both the uterus and cervix


Stage 3 endometrial cancer in FIGO staging

Cancer has spread beyond the uterus, but hasn’t reached the rectum and bladder. The pelvic area lymph nodes may be involved.


Stage 4 endometrial cancer. FIGO staging

Cancer has spread past the pelvic region and can affect the bladder, rectum, and more-distant parts of your body.


Invasion characteristic of endometrial cancer

-Local invasion
-Lymph spread to pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes
-Invasion of peritoneum (primarily in the case of serous-papillary cancer)
-Hematogenous invasion (advanced cases)


Symptoms of endometrial cancer

-vaginal bleeding after menopause
-bleeding between periods
-abnormal watery or bloody discharge from vagina
-pelvic pain


Diagnosis of endometrial cancer

Definitive diagnosis is based on hysteroscopy and biopsy (pelvic examination and transnational ultrasound to rule out other causes of symptoms first).
Other imaging techniques: PET-CT, MRI