vertebral column part 2 ex. 1 QQ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in vertebral column part 2 ex. 1 QQ Deck (37):
1

what are the 3 layers of the embryo called?

ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm

2

invagination of the ectoderm along the primitive streak gives rise to what embryonic structure?

notochord

3

what is the name given to the mesoderm that will give rise to the vertebral column?

paraxial mesoderm

4

what does paraxial mesoderm give rise to that will form the vertebral column?

somites

5

name the areas of cellular differentiation formed within the somite

sclerotome, myotome and dermatome

6

what part of the somite will give rise to the vertebral column?

sclerotome

7

list in order the names of the successive vertebral columns formed during development

membranous, cartilaginous, skeletal or osseous

8

migration of the sclerotomes to surround the notochord forms what developmental feature?

perichordal blastema

9

the perichordal blastema gives rise to what processes?

neural processes and costal processes

10

what is the name of the artery located between adjacent perichordal blastemae?

intersegmental artery

11

cell proliferation within the perichordal blastema will result in what features?

a loose cranial sclerotomite and a dense caudal sclerotomite

12

what forms between the sclerotomites of a perichordal blastema?

the intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von ebner)

13

what is the earliest embryonic feature that will identify the position of the adult intervertebral disc?

the intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von ebner)

14

the union of a dense caudal sclerotomite and a loose cranial sclerotomite from adjacent perichordal blastemae gives rise to what feature?

the vertebral blastema

15

what vessel will be identified adjacent to the vertebral blastema?

the segmental artery

16

what is the name given to the replacement of mesoderm by cartilage?

chondrification

17

chondrification begins in which region of the embryonic vertebral column?

the cervical region

18

what are the names given to the centers of chondrification within the vertebral blastema?

centrum center
neural arch center
transverse process center

19

how many centers of chondrification typically appear in the vertebral blastema?

6- 2 for centrum, 2 for neural arch, 2 for transverse process

20

what is the earliest time that centers of ossification appear in the cartilaginous vertebra?

during the 7th week

21

what is the ratio of primary to secondary centers of ossification for the typical vertebra?

3 primary, 5 secondary

22

what are the names of the primary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra?

centrum centers and neural arch centers

23

what is the classification of the joint forming between primary centers of ossification?

cartilage synchondrosis/ amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

24

what are the names of synchondroses forming between primary centers of ossification in the typical vertebra?

neurocentral synchondrosis and neural arch synchondrosis

25

what are the names of the 5 secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra?

tip of the transverse process,
tip of the spinous process,
epiphyseal plate centers

26

how many secondary ossification centers appear in the typical vertebra?

5; 1 for tip of transverse, 1 tip of spinous process, 1 each epiphyseal plate

27

what is the classification of the joint forming between secondary centers of ossification?

cartilage synchondrosis/ amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

28

what are the names of the synchondroses forming between secondary centers of ossification and the rest of the typical vertebra?

tip of transverse process synchondrosis
tip of spinous process synchondrosis
epiphyseal ring synchondrosis

29

what is the range of appearance for secondary centers of ossification of a typical vertebra?

during puberty, typically ages 11-16 years old

30

what are the 3 basic osseous parts of a vertebra?

vertebral body
vertebral arch
apophyseal regions

31

what is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?

cervical- rectangular
thoracic- triangular
lumbar- reniform

32

what is the name given to the compact bone at the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body?

superior epiphyseal rim, inferior epiphyseal rim

33

what is the name given to the cartilage found at the superior and inferior surface of a developing vertebral body?

superior epiphyseal plate, inferior epiphyseal plate

34

what are the names of the opening found around the margins of the vertebral body?

nutrient foramina or vascular foramina

35

what large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body?

the basivertebral venous foramen

36

what is the name of the feature located at the upper and lower surfaces of the pedicle?

superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure;
inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

37

what is the generic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine?

cervical- posterolateral
thoracic- posterior, slight lateral
lumbar- posterior