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Flashcards in Vits II Deck (87)
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1

What are the normal biological processes that generate ROS?

ETC
H2O2 production

2

What is the enzyme that converts Hydroxyl radicals to H2O2?

Superoxide dismutate

3

What is the enzyme that catalyses the reaction of hydrogen peroxide to water?

Catalase

4

What is the enzyme that converts glutathione and hydrogen peroxide to water?

Glutathione peroxidase

5

Is bilirubin an antioxidant?

Yes

6

alpha (or gamma) tocopherol is also known as what?

Vitamin E

7

beta and alpha carotene are lipid or water soluble?

Lipid

8

Lycopene is a lipid or water soluble antioxidant

Lipid

9

Lutein is a lipid or water soluble antioxidant?

Lipid

10

What are the three metals that are involved in superoxide dismutase reaction?

Cu
Zn
Mn

11

What is the metal involved in glutathione peroxidase?

Se

12

Urate is a lipid or water soluble antioxidant?

Water

13

Which can be supplemented in the diet: glutathione or lipoate?

Lipoate

14

What are the two vitamins in the glutathione/lipoate redox cycles? Which amino acid?

E and C

Cysteine

15

Why are the brain and lung particularly susceptible to ROS?

High oxygen exposure

16

True or false: vitamin E alone has been shown to reduce the incidence of CVD

False

17

True or false: some studies show that vit E and C supplementation can reduce the amount of plaques in vessels

True

18

True or false: the more colorful the vegetable, the more antioxidants it is likely to have

True

19

True or false: whole foods have not been shown to have increased antioxidant activity

False-there are studies, but MOA unknown

20

Higher serum levels of what antioxidants have been shown to lower the risk of developing macular degeneration

Lutein
Zeaxanthin

21

Higher serum levels of which 5 vitamins (and one metal) have been shown to lower the risk of developing macular degeneration?

E
C
B6
B12
Folate
Zn

22

True or false: treatment of AMD with vit C, E, beta carotene, Zn and Cu has been shown to slow the progression of AMD

True

23

What are the factors that are needed to ensure sufficient fat soluble vitamin uptake?

Bile salts and carrier proteins

24

Which fat soluble vitamin does not have a TUL?

K

25

Vitamin A is involved in what important reaction in the eye?

Beta-carotene to retinol

26

Which vitamin metabolites are involved in growth and differentiation of epithelial, nervous, bone, and immune function?

A

27

Deficiency in vitamin A results in what?

Poor dark light adaptation
Xerosis
Xeroderma

28

What are the two general sources of vitamin A?

Dark green vegetables
Orange fruits and vegetables

29

What is the function of vitamin D?

Regulator of bone metabolism and Ca

30

Deficiency in vitamin D results in what (adults and children)?

Rickets in children
Osteomalacia in adult