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Flashcards in Vocabulary Deck (178)
1

Termination of a pregnancy by medical or surgical intervention

Induced abortion

2

Spontaneous termination of a pregnancy before the 20th week of gestation

Spontaneous abortion

3

Complete expulsion of the entire products of conception

Complete abortion

4

Incomplete expulsion of the products of conception with retained tissue in the uterus

Incomplete abortion

5

Dilation of the internal cervical os but without yet passage of the products of conception

Inevitable abortion

6

Intrauterine retention of the non-viable products of conception

Missed abortion

7

Three or more consecutive first-trimester abortions

Recurrent abortions

8

A threatened, inevitable, incomplete, missed, or complete abortion complicated by infxn

Septic abortion

9

Vaginal ️Bleeding in the presence of a closed cervix and a viable fetus

Threatened abortion

10

Separation of the normally implanted placenta from its uterine attachment after the 20th week or pregnancy and before the birth of the infant

Abruptio placentae

11

Overgrowth of the terminal parts of the skeletal system after epiphyseal fusion as a result of overproduction of growth hormone

Acromegaly

12

Presence of endometrial tissue within the myometrium

Adenomyosis

13

The uterine appendages, including the Fallopian tubes, ovaries, and associated ligaments

Adnexae

14

A congenital or acquired increase in the number of cells of the adrenal cortex, occurring bilaterally and resulting in excessive secretion of 17-ketosteroids with signs of virilization

Adrenal hyperplasia

15

failure of menarche to occur by the 16th year of life

Primary amenorrhea

16

Absence of menses for 3 or more months after menarche

Secondary amenorrhea

17

Aspiration of amniotic fluid, usually transabdominally, for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes

Amniocentesis

18

A syndrome of androgen insensitivity characterized by primary amenorrhea, a female phenotype, testes (abdominal or inguinal) instead of ovaries, the absence of a uterus and a male genotype

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

19

Eating disorder characterized by altered body image and marked reduction in intake of food, caused by psychogenic factors and leading to malnutrition and amenorrhea

Anorexia Nervosa

20

Irregular uterine bleeding that occurs in the absence of ovulation

Anovulatory Bleeding

21

A physical assessment of the newborn usually performed at 1 and 5 minutes after birth; used to determine the need for resuscitation

APGAR score

22

loss of uterine muscle tonicity, which may result in failure of labor to progress or in postpartum hemorrhage

Uterine atony

23

Sex chromatin masses on the nuclear membrane. The number of these is one fewer than the number of X chromosomes in the cell

Barr bodies

24

A pair of glands located at the 4 o'clock and 8 o'clock position on the vulvo-vaginal rim

Bartholin glands

25

The oral temperature at rest, used for detection of ovulation

Basal body temperature

26

The most common germ cell tumor, consisting of mature elements of all three germ layers

Benign cystic teratoma

Dermoid cyst

27

A physical assessment of the fetus, including ultrasound evaluation of fetal movement,breathing movements, fetal tone, amniotic fluid volume, and electronic fetal heart monitoring

Biophysical profile

28

A graph showing a basal body temperature in the luteal phase that is 0.3-1 degree higher than that of a follicular phase, which indicates that ovulation has occurred.

Biphasic temperature curve

29

The circulation by which the fetus exchanges nutrients and waste products with the mother

Uteroplacental blood flow

30

Endometrial ️Bleeding that occurs at inappropriate times during the use of hormonal contraceptives

Breakthrough ️Bleeding

31

A neoplasm in which the tumor cells are confined by the basement membrane

Carcinoma in situ

32

Birth of a fetus through incisions made in the abdomen and uterine wall

Cesarean delivery

33

Irregular brownish patches of various sizes that may appear on the face during pregnancy or during the use of oral contraceptives

Chloasma

34

Inflammation of the fetal membranes

Chorioamnionitis

35

A malignant tumor composed of sheets of cellular and syncytial trophoblast

Choriocarcinoma

36

The trans cervical or Transabdominal sampling of chorionic villi for Cytogenetic evaluation of the fetus

Chorionic villus sampling

37

The period of life or the syndrome of endocrine, somatic, and psychic changes that occur in a woman during the transition from the reproductive to the nonreproductive state

Climacteric

38

A ligand, that is in a group of compounds known as selective estrogen receptor modulators. This ligand stimulates the maturation of follicles and thereby ovulation as a result of its Antiestrogenic effect on the hypothalamus.

Clomiphene

39

Withdrawal of the penis during coitus before ejaculation

Coitus interruptus

40

A surgical procedure use to repair a Cystocele or a rectocele

Anterior/Posterior colporrhaphy

41

Examination of the vagina and cervix by means of an instrument that provides low magnification

Colposcopy

42

A benign, cauliflower-like growth on the genitalia, caused by HPV

Condyloma acuminatum

43

A cone of cervical tissue excised for histological examination

Cone biopsy

44

A fetal assessment and therapeutic technique in which a needle is passed into an umbilical vessel and blood is sampled or treatment is given

Percutaneous blood sampling

Cordocentesis

45

The pouch-like cavity between the rectum and the uterus, formed by a fold of peritoneum

Cul-de-sac

46

Needle aspiration of Intraperitoneal fluid or blood through a puncture of the posterior vaginal fornix into the cul-de-sac

Culdocentesis

47

Curettage of the endometrium and endocervical for diagnostic evaluation. Specimens are submitted separately for pathologic examination.

Fractional curettage

48

Scraping of the inferior of a cavity or other surface with a suction catheter

Suction curettage

49

A radiogram of the urinary bladder after the injection of a contrast medium

Cystogram

50

Measurement of the function and capacity of the urinary bladder by pressure-volume studies; often used to diagnose hyperactive bladder

Cystometry

51

Identifiable changes in the endometrium and other tissues in response to the hormonal effects of progesterone

Decidua

52

The simultaneous availability of two sterile set-ups for either a vaginal or an abdominal delivery

Double set-up

53

A malignant solid germ cell tumor of the ovary

Dysgerminoma

54

Intrauterine growth restriction leading to a small-for-dates baby, associated with placental insufficiency

Dysmaturity

55

Difficult or painful inter course

Dyspareunia

56

Abnormal or difficult labor

Dystocia

57

The growth of the columnar epithelium of the endocervix onto the ectocervix

Ectropion

Eversion

58

Thickening or shortening of the cervix

Effacement

59

The conceptus from the blastocyst stage to the end of the 8 week

Embryo

60

The presence of endometrial implants outside of the uterus

Endometriosis

61

Instrumental visualization of the interior of a hollow viscus

Endoscopy

62

An incision made into the perineum at the time of vaginal delivery

Episiotomy

63

The exogenous administration of estrogen or estrogenic substances to overcome a deficiency or absence of the natural hormone

Estrogen replacement

64

Estrogen, unopposed

The continuous and prolonged effect of estrogen on the endometrium resulting from a lack of progesterone

65

The removal of all pelvic viscera, including the urinary bladder, the rectum, or both, usually in the setting of advanced cervical malignancy

Pelvic exenteration

66

The microscopic patter of sodium chloride crystals as seen in estrogen stimulated cervical mucous or amniotic fluid

Ferning

67

The conceptus from 8 weeks until birth

Fetus

68

Mammary changes characterized by ️Fibrosis and formation of cysts in the fibrous stroma

Fibrocystic change

69

A physiologic cyst arising from the Graafian follicle or the corpus luteum

Functional ovarian cyst

70

The spontaneous flow of Breast milk in the absence of a recent pregnancy

Galactorrhea

71

The congenital absence of ovarian tissue or its presence only as a rudimentary streak

Gonadal Agenesis

72

A glycoprotein hormone that is produced by the synctiotrophoblast and is immunologically similar to luteinizing hormone

Human chorionic gonadotropin

73

The congenitally defective development of the gonads

Gonadal dysgenesis

74

A gonadotropin isolated from the urine of postmenopausal women, consisting primarily of follicle stimulating hormone with variable amounts of LH; used for ovulation induction

Human menopausal gonadotropin

75

A feminine, estrogen producing ovarian tumor

Granulosa cell tumor

76

A pregnant woman

Gravidara

77

The pregnant state, or the total number of pregnancies a woman has had including the current pregnancy

Gravis it's

78

Blood in the peritoneal cavity

Hemoperitoneum

79

A person who exhibits characteristics of both sexes. Characterized by e presence of both ovarian and testicular tissue

Hermaphrodite

80

Estrogen and progesterone replacement therapy

Hormone replacement therapy

81

A vasomotor symptom characterized by transient hot sensations that involve chiefly the upper part of the thorax, neck, and head; frequently followed by sweats and associated with diminution in the ovarian secretion of estrogen

Hot flashes

82

Excessive amounts of amniotic fluid at term

Hydramnios

83

A deficiency (usually

Hypofibrinogenemia

84

The combination of laparoscopy with vaginal surgery techniques to remove the uterus and frequently the Adnexae

Laparoscopic Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy

85

The removal of the uterine corpus leaving the cervix in situ

Subtotal hysterectomy

86

The removal of the uterine corpus and cervix without regard to the tubes or ovaries

Total hysterectomy

87

The removal of the uterus through the vagina

Vaginal hysterectomy

88

The removal of the uterine corpus,cervix, and parametrium with dissection of the ureters; usually combine with pelvic lymphadenectomy

Radical hysterectomy

89

The removal of the uterine corpus and cervix through an incision made in the abdominal wall

Abdominal hysterectomy

90

Roentgenography of the uterus and tubes after injection of radiopaque contrast medium through the cervix. Is is useful in ascertaining irregularities of the uterine cavity and patency of the Fallopian tubes

Hysterosalpingography

91

The transfer vicar endoscopic visualization of the endometrial cavity

Hysteroscopy

92

Surgical incision through the wall of the uterus

Hysterotomy

93

Failure of a lumen to develop at a point where the budding vagina arises from the urogenital sinus

Imperforate hymen

94

The inability to achieve or sustain penile sensation

Impotence

95

The space in the placenta in which maternal blood bathes the chorionic villi allowing the exchange of materials between the fetal and maternal circulations

Intervillous space

96

A benign mammary tumor, often multiple, occurring predominately in parous women at or shortly before menopause. It is typically located beneath the areola and is often associated with bleeding from the nipple

Intraductal papilloma

97

Intrauterine death of a fetus. For purposes of vital statistics, a fetal death prior to 500 grams is usually classified as an abortus

Intrauterine fetal demise

98

Intrauterine growth restriction leading to a small-for-dates baby, associated with placental insufficiency

Intrauterine growth retardation

99

Introduction of the penis into the vagina

Intromission

100

Ensuring or maintaining what is considered to be just or fair according to predetermined criteria

Justice

101

A photographic reproduction of the chromosomes of a cell in metaphase, arranged according to a standard classification

Karyotype

102

A polypeptide hormone that is produced by the Syncytiotrophoblast and is similar to prolactin and somatotropin from the pituitary and is involved in carbohydrate metabolism by the mother and fetus

Human placental Lactogen

103

A large loop excision of the transformation zone. Uses a thin, low voltage, electrified wire loop to cut out abnormal cervical tissue to treat cervical dysplasia

Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure

104

An imprecise clinical term usually referring to white lesions of the vulva

Leukoplakia

105

The muscular sheet consisting of the iliococcygeus, Pubococcygeus, and Puborectalis muscles, which forms most of the pelvic floor and supports the pelvic viscera

Levator muscles

106

The relationship of the long axis of the fetus to the long axis of the mother. Examples are longitudinal, transverse, and oblique

Lie

107

The dense connective tissue that represents the Union of the base of the broad ligament to the supravaginal portion of the cervix and laterally to the sides of the pelvis. It is considered to be the primary support of the uterus

Cardinal ligament

108

The peritoneal folds containing connective tissue, autonomic nerves, and involuntary muscle, arising on each side of the posterior wall of the uterus at about the level of the internal cervical os and passing backward towards the rectum around which they extend to their insertion on the sacral wall. It is considered to play an important part in axial support of the uterus.

Uterosacral ligament

109

Tubal ligation

The surgical or mechanical interruption of the continuity of the Fallopian tubes

110

LNMP

Last normal menstrual period

111

Sexual stimulation by manipulation of the genitals

Masturbation

112

The ratio of Parabasal to intermediate to superficial vaginal epithelial cells which is an indication of estrogen effect

Maturation index

113

The condition of a fetus weighing 2500g or more

Maturity

114

Excessive or prolonged uterine bleeding occurring at regular intervals

Menorrhagia

115

A reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another cell type

Metaplasia

116

Uterine bleeding occurring at times other than the expected menses; for example, intermenstrual ️Bleeding

Metrorrhagia

117

An imaginary plane that passes through the pelvis and is defined by three points; the inferior margin of the symphysis pubis and the tips of the Ischial spines on either side. The plane usually includes the smallest dimensions of the pelvis

Midpelvis

118

Death of the conceptus between >500 grams and birth

Fetal mortality

119

Death of a fetus before birth. For purposes of vital statistics the fetus must be over 20!weeks gestational age or over 500 grams in weight

Stillbirth

120

Death of the infant in the first 28 days of life

Neonatal mortality

121

Death of the fetus or neonate between 20 weeks of gestation and 28 days after birth. It is the sum of stillbirths and neonatal deaths

Perinatal mortality

122

The presence in an individual of cells of different chromosomal constitutions.

Mosaicism

123

The secretion of the cervical mucous glands; its quality and quantity are influenced by estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen makes it abundant and clear (which is called Spinbarkeit) and a fern pattern on drying. Progesterone makes it scant, opaque, and cellular without a fern pattern on microscopic examination

Cervical mucous

124

Referring to the first 28 days of life

Neonatal

125

Evaluation of the fetus by electronic fetal heart monitoring, not in labor

Nonstress test

126

Infrequent menstruation

Oligomenorrhea

127

Stimulation of ovulation by artificial means

Induction of ovulation

128

An octapeptide formed in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior love of the pituitary. It has stimulant effects on the smooth muscle of the uterus and mammary glands

Oxytocin

129

A cytologic smear of exfoliated cells (for example, from the cervix, endometrial cavity, or vagina) used in the early detection of Cancer or for evaluation of a patient's hormone status

Papanicolaou smear

130

The number of pregnancies of a particular woman in which the fetus is over 20 weeks gestation prior to delivery

Parity

131

The floor or sling for the pelvic structures, located at the level of the pelvic outlet. The most important Structures are the Levator ani muscle and fascial sheaths

Pelvic floor

132

An imaginary plane passing through the pelvis that represents the upper boundary of the true pelvis. It is bounded posteriorly by the promontory and alae of the sacrum, laterally by the Linea Terminalis, and anteriorly by the original rami of the pubic bones and the upper margin of the symphysis pubis

Pelvic inlet

133

Laparoscopic surgery using multiple small incision, specialized instruments and techniques

Pelviscopic surgery

134

Pertaining to the combination of fetal and neonatal periods, considered to begin after 20 weeks of gestation and to end 28 days after birth

Perinatal

135

Plastic repair of the perineum

Perineorrhaphy

136

The pelvic floor and associated structures occupying the pelvic outlet

Perineum

137

The presence of air in the peritoneal cavity

The presence of air in the peritoneal cavity

138

A syndrome of secondary oligomenorrhea and infertility associated with multiple follicle cysts of the ovary and failure to ovulate

Polycystic ovary syndrome

139

Cyclical uterine bleeding that is normal in amount but ️Occurs at

Polymenorrhea

140

The relationship of a designated point on the presenting part of the fetus to the maternal pelvis

Position

141

Pregnancy prolonged beyond the end of the 42nd week of gestation

Post term pregnancy

142

An infant born before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy

Prematurity

143

A complex of symptoms occurring in the progestational phase of the menstrual cycle

Premenstrual syndrome

144

The portion of the body of the fetus that is coming first in the birth canal

Presentation

145

The portion of the fetus that is felt through the cervix on vaginal examination; determines the presentation

Presenting part

146

A condition in which the umbilical cord precedes the presenting part of the fetus

Umbilical cord prolapse

147

Prolapse of the uterus usually due to the loss of supporting structures. It is related to injuries of childbirth, advanced age, or congenital weakness

Uterine prolapse

148

False pregnancy in which some of the signs and symptoms of pregnancy are present, although no conception had taken place

Pseudocyesis

149

The period between the beginning of the development of secondary sexual characteristics and the completion of somatic growth

Puberty

150

The lack of appearance of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14

Delayed puberty

151

The appearance of secondary sexual characteristics before 7.5 years of age

Precocious puberty

152

The period after delivery in which the reproductive tract returns to its normal, nonpregnant condition, generally 6-8 weeks

Puerperium

153

The first perception by the mother of fetal movement, usually between the 16th and 20th week of gestation

Quickening

154

The retrograde flow of uterine or tubal contents into the abdominal cavity

Tubal reflux

155

A method of contraception in which coitus is avoided when ovulation is likely

Rhythm method

Periodic abstinence

156

An acute exanthematous viral disease that may cause fetal malformation if contracted during the first trimester of pregnancy

Rubella

157

Surgical removal of Fallopian tube

Salpingectomy

158

Surgical removal of a Fallopian tube and ovary

Salpingo-oophorectomy

159

The application of a solution of iodine to the cervix. The iodine is taken up by the glycogen in normal vaginal epithelium giving it s brown appearance. Areas lacking in glycogen are white or whitish yellow, as in leukoplakia or Cancer. Although nonstaining areas are not diagnostic of Cancer, they aid in choosing the spot to which a biopsy should be directed

Schiller test

160

The physical chances that have occurred in response to endocrine changes during puberty

Secondary sexual characteristics

161

The evaluation of the components of semen, especially spermatozoa, as a means of evaluating male infertility

Semen analysis

162

The physiologic and psychological expression of sexual behavior. The periods of infancy, adolescence, adulthood,vans the post climacteric state each have characteristic manifestations of sexuality

Sexuality

163

A test for infertility in which cervical mucous is aspirated after coitus and examined for quality and presence or absence of infection. The motility, normality, and number of sperm are noted

Sim-Huhner test

Post-coital test

164

The vestibular glands that open into and around the urethra

Skene glands

165

The ability of cervical mucous to be drawn out into thread, characteristically greater in the preovulatory and ovulatory Phages of the menstrual cycle

Spinnbarkeit

166

The location of the fetal presenting part (leading bony point) relative to the level of the ischial spines. Station +2 means the presenting part is 2cm below the ischial spines. Station 1 means the presenting part is 1 cm above the ischial spines.

Station

167

Streaks or lines seen on the abdominal skin of a pregnant woman

Striae gravidarum

168

A functioning ovarian tumor composed of theca cells

Thecoma

169

The onset of development of the Breast

Thelarche

170

A period of 3 months. The period of gestation is divided into three units of three calendar months each.

Trimester

171

The epithelium of the chorion, including the covering of the placental villi. It comprises a cellular layer and Synctium

Trophoblasts

172

The enlarged sebaceous glands of the areolae of the mammary glands during late pregnancy and lactation

Montgomery tubercles

173

Protrusion of the urethra through the supporting structure of the anterior wall

Urethrocele

174

The surgical interruption of the ductus deferens for permanent contraception

Vasectomy

175

VBAC

Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery

176

The condition of a fetus weighing 500g or more; the ability to live independent outside the uterus

Viability

177

The development of masculine traits in a female

Virilization

178

Uterine bleeding after the interruption of hormonal support of the endometrium

Withdrawal bleeding