Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (47):
What are the four main functions of the kidney?
-Excrete waste products of metabolism
-Regulate body's concentration of water and sodium
-maintain acid balance of plasma
-Secrete some hormones
What hormones are secreted by the kidney?
What 4 compartments can the kidney be divided into?
___ problem in the kidney is usually immunopathological (immune complex)
Pathology of the __ and __ __ is due to bacterial infection by toxins.
2 AKAs for kidney inflammation/ pathology of glomeruli
Inside the ___ are arterioles. The arteriole that enters the glomerulus is the __ __ and blood leaves via the __ __.
Juxtaglomerular cells are located near the __ __ and they control the __ __ in the arterioles.
Because blood ill only diffuse out at optimum __ __, if it drops (< __mmHg), it leads to secretion of __, which raises BP.
What are the layers of the Arteriole from inside to out?
Glomerular basement membrane
Visceral Epithelial Cells
Endothelial cells line the ___. They have holes called ___ that filter the __
Visceral Epithelial Cells AKA
*look like feet
Foot processes (of podoctyes)- between two of these there are __ __ and it is important for formation of ___- a foot process and a slit make up the __
Mesangial cells are a type of __ cell that occupies the space within the __. Can __ , fight __, and can become __ if there is excess proliferation.
What are the 3 Pathogenic mechanisms of glomerulonephritis?
Circulating immune complex deposition
Heymann's Glomerular Nephritis
Circulating immune complex deposition is classic Type __ hypersensitivity. It takes place only in ___, outside the kidney.
Circulating Immune Complex Deposition: There is an appearance of __ in the blood. __ are made and they meet and bind to the __.
Circulating Immune Complex Deposition: This antigen-antibody complex attaches to the wall of the ___, __ __ are deposited into the layer between __ __ and __ __; this makes the __ space.
Circulating Immune Complex Deposition: The immune complex lead to the attraction of __ cells, but the cells can't __ the complex because it is bound to the __ wall. So they release __ enzymes into the surrounding area.
Circulating Immune Complex Deposition: Can result in the injury of the vascular wall leading to __ since the __ digest the vascular wall. The same thing happens in the __.
Circulating Immune Complex Deposition: Will prevent normal __ of the __
Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis: Type __ hypersensitivity (__ mediated and __ dependent) reaction inside __
Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis: Formation of __ against the __ __ __
glomerular basement membrane
Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis: Have attraction of __ and a release of __ cells. They can't __, so enzymes are released that destroy the __, __, and __.
Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis: This will also result in __
Heymann's Glomerulinephritis: Characterized by development of antibodies against:
1. Antigens of the __
2. antigens that can be deposited between the __ and __
Heymann's Glomerulinephritis: Same mechanism, formation of __ cells and release of __
Heymann's Glomerulinephritis: Both __ and __ cells are killed
Heymann's Glomerulinephritis: NOT a ___
Glomeruli are very permeable to __, but impermeable to __(3)__.
Proteins cannot go through the wall into the glomeruli. If there is protein in the ___, this means ___
In nephritic syndrome - for unknown reasons, the __ is damaged and there is increased permeability of __ and decreased permeability of __
Nephritic syndrome is manifested clinically by __(3)__
Hematuria is manifested as __ in the urine with red blood ___
In oliguria or azotemia is characterized by elevated blood levels of ___ and ___ which is closely related to reduced ___ filtration rate.
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
When the concentration of azotemia is so high it results in ___ and then in __ __. It leads to __ of the body inside.
Uremia= ___ + ___
Hypertension: __ cells regulate BP in the body. They control the pressure within the arterioles to push blood through. Production of __ occurs when there is a decrease in pressure in the ___ arteriole and decrease in ___- when BP is lower than the BP needed for filtration.
Hypertension: The producton of urine is the first step in a cascade. The end product is the formation of ___ __, which leads to __ in blood pressure
Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: MAy be caused by infection antibodies of ___ is produced and the antibodies can also destroy the __ wall. People who have ___ ___ are prone to the production of acute proliferative glomerulonephritis
Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: Caused by Strep Pyogenes AKA _____
Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus group A
Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: Some __ infections in children may also result in this condition. It is curable with ___.
Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: Sometimes can switch to ___ glomerulonephritis. Can occur in chldren or adults. This occurs __% of the time in adults and __% in children.
Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: After a few weeks of ___, kids will recover __% of the time
Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: What is the common sign associated with this?
Swelling underneath the eyes (in a younger person)
*Common with kidney problem
Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis: Most ___. It is a complex of disorders (not a disease) characterized by rapid and progressive ___ pathology (oliguria) and __ within weeks or months. The prognosis depends on the number of __ with __.