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Pathology II Lecture > Week 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (47):
1

What are the four main functions of the kidney?

-Excrete waste products of metabolism
-Regulate body's concentration of water and sodium
-maintain acid balance of plasma
-Secrete some hormones

2

What hormones are secreted by the kidney?

Renin
Erythropoietin
Prostaglandins

3

What 4 compartments can the kidney be divided into?

Glomeruli
Tubules
Interstitial tissues
vessels (renal)

4

___ problem in the kidney is usually immunopathological (immune complex)

Glomeruli

5

Pathology of the __ and __ __ is due to bacterial infection by toxins.

tubules
interstitial tissues

6

2 AKAs for kidney inflammation/ pathology of glomeruli

Glomerulonephritis
Glomerulopathy

7

Inside the ___ are arterioles. The arteriole that enters the glomerulus is the __ __ and blood leaves via the __ __.

Glomeruli
afferent arteriole
efferent arteriole

8

Juxtaglomerular cells are located near the __ __ and they control the __ __ in the arterioles.

afferent arteriole
blood pressure

9

Because blood ill only diffuse out at optimum __ __, if it drops (< __mmHg), it leads to secretion of __, which raises BP.

Blood Pressure
50
Renin

10

What are the layers of the Arteriole from inside to out?

Endothelial Cells
Glomerular basement membrane
Visceral Epithelial Cells

11

Endothelial cells line the ___. They have holes called ___ that filter the __

arterioles
pseudo-fenestrations
blood

12

Visceral Epithelial Cells AKA

Podocytes

*look like feet

13

Foot processes (of podoctyes)- between two of these there are __ __ and it is important for formation of ___- a foot process and a slit make up the __

filtration slits
urine
podocyte

14

Mesangial cells are a type of __ cell that occupies the space within the __. Can __ , fight __, and can become __ if there is excess proliferation.

stromal
glomeruli
replicate
infection
sclerotic

15

What are the 3 Pathogenic mechanisms of glomerulonephritis?

Circulating immune complex deposition
Anti-GBM glomerulonephritis
Heymann's Glomerular Nephritis

16

Circulating immune complex deposition is classic Type __ hypersensitivity. It takes place only in ___, outside the kidney.

3
circulation

17

Circulating Immune Complex Deposition: There is an appearance of __ in the blood. __ are made and they meet and bind to the __.

antigens
antibodies
antigens

18

Circulating Immune Complex Deposition: This antigen-antibody complex attaches to the wall of the ___, __ __ are deposited into the layer between __ __ and __ __; this makes the __ space.

vessel
Immune complexes
basement membrane
endothelial cells
subentimal

19

Circulating Immune Complex Deposition: The immune complex lead to the attraction of __ cells, but the cells can't __ the complex because it is bound to the __ wall. So they release __ enzymes into the surrounding area.

phagocytic
engulf
vascular
proteolytic

20

Circulating Immune Complex Deposition: Can result in the injury of the vascular wall leading to __ since the __ digest the vascular wall. The same thing happens in the __.

vasculitis
proteins
glomeruli

21

Circulating Immune Complex Deposition: Will prevent normal __ of the __

filtration
blood

22

Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis: Type __ hypersensitivity (__ mediated and __ dependent) reaction inside __

2
Antigen
Complement
kidney

23

Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis: Formation of __ against the __ __ __

antibodies
glomerular basement membrane

24

Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis: Have attraction of __ and a release of __ cells. They can't __, so enzymes are released that destroy the __, __, and __.

neutrophils
phagocytic
dissolve
GBM
epithelial cells
podocytes

25

Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis: This will also result in __

vasculitis

26

Heymann's Glomerulinephritis: Characterized by development of antibodies against:
1. Antigens of the __
2. antigens that can be deposited between the __ and __

Podocyte
GBM
podocytes

27

Heymann's Glomerulinephritis: Same mechanism, formation of __ cells and release of __

phagocytic
enzymes

28

Heymann's Glomerulinephritis: Both __ and __ cells are killed

good
bad

29

Heymann's Glomerulinephritis: NOT a ___

hypersensitivity

30

Glomeruli are very permeable to __, but impermeable to __(3)__.

water
blood cells
protein
albumin

31

Proteins cannot go through the wall into the glomeruli. If there is protein in the ___, this means ___

urine
pathology

32

In nephritic syndrome - for unknown reasons, the __ is damaged and there is increased permeability of __ and decreased permeability of __

glomeruli
RBCs
Water

33

Nephritic syndrome is manifested clinically by __(3)__

Hematuria
Oliguria
Hypertension

34

Hematuria is manifested as __ in the urine with red blood ___

blood
casts

35

In oliguria or azotemia is characterized by elevated blood levels of ___ and ___ which is closely related to reduced ___ filtration rate.

BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
creatine
glomerular

36

When the concentration of azotemia is so high it results in ___ and then in __ __. It leads to __ of the body inside.

uremia
renal failure
poisoning

37

Uremia= ___ + ___

Azotemia
Clinical Manifestation

38

Hypertension: __ cells regulate BP in the body. They control the pressure within the arterioles to push blood through. Production of __ occurs when there is a decrease in pressure in the ___ arteriole and decrease in ___- when BP is lower than the BP needed for filtration.

Juxtaglomerular
renin
afferent
GFR

39

Hypertension: The producton of urine is the first step in a cascade. The end product is the formation of ___ __, which leads to __ in blood pressure

Angiotensin II
Increase

40

Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: MAy be caused by infection antibodies of ___ is produced and the antibodies can also destroy the __ wall. People who have ___ ___ are prone to the production of acute proliferative glomerulonephritis

streptococcus
glomerular
strep throat

41

Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: Caused by Strep Pyogenes AKA _____

Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus group A

42

Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: Some __ infections in children may also result in this condition. It is curable with ___.

viral
corticosteroids

43

Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: Sometimes can switch to ___ glomerulonephritis. Can occur in chldren or adults. This occurs __% of the time in adults and __% in children.

Chronic
50
1

44

Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: After a few weeks of ___, kids will recover __% of the time

TMT
99

45

Acute Proliferative Glomerulonephritis: What is the common sign associated with this?

Swelling underneath the eyes (in a younger person)

*Common with kidney problem

46

Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis: Most ___. It is a complex of disorders (not a disease) characterized by rapid and progressive ___ pathology (oliguria) and __ within weeks or months. The prognosis depends on the number of __ with __.

Dangerous
kidney
death
glomeruli
Crescents

47

Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis: The glomeruli will become crescent shaped and obstruct the lumen of the __ __ __ and urine willl build up inside the kidney and increase ___ pressure within the ___. This prevents blood ___. __% or more of crescent cells is fatal

Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Hydrostatic
GBM
Circulation
80