Week 1 - Neuro Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 1 - Neuro Anatomy Deck (263):
1

frontal bone

front of skull

2

supraorbital foramen

supraorbital nerve

3

supraorbital nerve

branch of ophthalmic nerve (V1) of trigeminal nerve

4

frontal sinus

in brow above eye

5

foramen cecum

small hole in front of cribriform plate, emissary vein to superior sagittal sinus

6

parietal bone

superior / posterior of skull

7

parietal foramen

near suture line, emissary veins

8

occipital bone

back of head

9

external occipital protuberance

bump on occipital bone

10

internal occipital protuberance

bump inside occipital bone

11

jugular foramen

large hole inferior to petrous part

12

passes through jugular foramen

CN IX glossopharyngeal, CN X vagus nerve, CN XI accessory nerve, inferior petrosal sinus, sigmoid sinus, internal jugular vein descends from it

13

hypoglossal canal

medial to jugular foramen, near anterior occipital condyle

14

passes through hypoglossal canal

CN XII hypoglossal nerve

15

foramen magnum

large hole in occipital bone

16

passes through foramen magnum

CN XI accessory nerve, vertebral arteries, spinal cord

17

occipital condyle

on both sides of foramen magnum, articulates with C1 vertebra (atlas)

18

temporal bone

lateral sides of skull

19

external auditory meatus

outside ear hole in temporal bone

20

internal auditory meatus

on inferior vertical surface of petrous part

21

passes through internal auditory meatus

CN VII facial nerve, CN VIII vestibulocochlear nerve

22

mastoid process

bump on temporal bone behind ear, points inferiorly

23

styloid process

sharp spike off inferior temporal bone, medial to mastoid process

24

mandibular fossa

notch under zygomatic process of temporal bone for the condylar process of the mandible

25

articular tubercle

bump on zygomatic process of temporal bone

26

zygomatic process of temporal bone

creates zygomatic arch by fusing with temporal process of zygomatic bone

27

petrous part

shelf on temporal bone inside skull

28

foramen lacerum

cartilage filled in life, medial, anterior to occipital condyle

29

carotid canal

anterior to jugular foramen in temporal bone

30

passes through the carotid canal

internal carotid artery, postganglionic sympathetic fibers

31

stylomastoid foramen

between styloid and mastoid on temporal bone

32

passes through stylomastoid foramen

CN VII facial nerve (after it passes through the internal auditory meatus)

33

sphenoid bone

bat shaped bone posterior to cribriform plate and in the back of eye orbital

34

lesser wing of sphenoid bone

posterior edge of anterior cranial fossa

35

greater wing of sphenoid bone

inferior to lesser wing of sphenoid bone

36

prechiasmatic groove

slender indentation anterior to sella turcica

37

sphenoid sinus

open space inside sphendoid bone

38

medial pterygoid plate

medial pointed edge that runs vertically off sphenoid bone posterior to palatine area

39

lateral pterygoid plate

lateral pointed edge that runs vertically off sphenoid bone posterior to palatine area

40

optic canal

lateral to prechiasmatic groove

41

passes through the optic canal

CN II optic nerve, ophthalmic artery (branch of internal carotid artery)

42

superior orbital fissure

long opening inferior to lesser wing of sphenoid

43

passes through superior orbital fissure

CN III oculomotor nerve, CN IV trochlear nerve, CN V1 ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve, CN VI abducens nerve

44

inferior orbital fissure

long opening inferior to greater wing of sphenoid

45

foramen rotundum

posterior to orbital fissures and medial to sella turcica in sphenoid

46

passes through the foramen rotundum

CN V2 maxillary nerve of trigeminal nerve

47

foramen ovale

oval shaped, in line with foramen rotundum on one side and foramen spinosum in sphenoid

48

passes through foramen ovale

CN V3 mandibular nerve of trigeminal nerve

49

foramen spinosum

in line with foramen rotudum and ovale, most lateral, in sphenoid

50

passes through foramen spinosum

middle meningeal artery

51

sphenopalatine foramen

seen when looking laterally into space behind maxilla, where sphenoid and palatine bone meet

52

passes through the sphenopalatine foramen

sphenopalatine artery

53

ethmoid bone

anterior to sphenoid bone, extends inferiorly into nasal spetum

54

crista galli

sharp point that extends superiorly from cribriform plate in ethmoid bone

55

cribriform plate

area of small hole in ethmoid superior to nasal cavity

56

perpendicular plate

vertical portion of ethmoid, forms nasal septum

57

superior nasal concha

most superior bulge into nasal cavity off ethmoid bone

58

middle nasal concha

middle bulge into nasal cavity off ethmoid bone

59

inferior nasal concha

most inferior bulge into nasal cavity, its own bone

60

ethmoid sinus

opening inside ethmoid bone, on superior lateral edge of eye socket

61

zygomatic bone

bridges between temporal bone and maxilla

62

orbital surface

part of zygomatic bone that make lateral eye orbital

63

frontal process of zygomatic bone

part of zygomatic bone that extend superiorly to frontal bone, external part of lateral eye orbital

64

temporal process of zygomatic bone

create zygomatic arch by fusing with zygomatic process of the temporal bone

65

maxilla

composes anterior cheeks and upper jaw

66

frontal process of maxilla

extends superiorly to connect with frontal bone on lateral sides of nasal bone

67

infraorbital foramen

inferior to eye orbital in maxilla

68

passes through the infraorbital foramen

CN V2 infraorbital nerve of maxillary nerve of trigeminal nerve

69

zygomatic process of maxilla

extends laterally and connects to zygomatic bone

70

alveolar processes

bulges where teeth are in maxilla

71

incisive canal

opens into roof of mouth close to teeth

72

passes through incisive canal

nasopalatine nerve, sphenopalatine vessels

73

palatine process

extends posteriorly creating hard palate of mouth, part of maxilla

74

maxillary sinus

opening inside maxilla behind cheeks

75

nasal bone

small bone at bridge of nose between eyes

76

lacrimal bone

small bone in medial anterior eye orbital on either side of nose

77

lacrimal fossa

opening in lacrimal bone for lacrimal duct

78

vomer bone

inferior third of nasal septum

79

palatine bone

vertically oriented bone anterior to sphenoid bone and posterior to ethmoid and vomer

80

horizontal plate

creates posterior portion of hard palate, palatine bone

81

greater palatine foramen

larger lateral and posterior holes in horizontal plate of palatine

82

lesser palatine foramen

smaller lateral and posterior holes in horizontal plate of palatine

83

passes through greater palatine foramen

greater palatine vessels and nerve

84

passes through lesser palatine foramen

lesser palatine vessels and nerve

85

mandible

lower jaw

86

head of mandible

articular portion of condylar process

87

neck of mandible

narrowed portion of condylar process

88

mandibular notch

U shaped opening between condylar process and coronoid process

89

coronoid process

point anterior to mandibular notch

90

ramus

broad portion of mandible inferior to mandibular notch

91

angle of mandible

posterior lateral corner of mandible

92

body of mandible

portion of mandible inferior to teeth

93

mental foramen

opening in body of mandible

94

passes through mental foramen

CN V3 mental nerve of mandibular nerve of trigeminal nerve

95

mental protuberance

sharp anterior point of mandible, chin

96

alveolar crests

bulges for each tooth in mandible

97

mandibular foramen

opens on inner posterior surface of mandible, inferior alveolar nerve (branch of V3) passes into it and comes out mental foramen as mental nerve

98

passes through mandibular foramen

CN V3 inferior alveolar nerve of mandibular nerve of trigeminal nerve, sensory to teeth, exits mental foramen as mental nerve - sensory to lower lip

99

lingula

flap of bone superior to mandibular foramen

100

mylohyoid groove

groove extending inferiorly and anteriorly form mandibular foramen

101

mylohyoid line

ridge on inside of mandible

102

mental spines

spines on inside of mandible opposite mental protuberance

103

pterion

where temporal, frontal, sphenoid, and parietal bone, thin area of skull

104

pterygomaxillary fissure

crack between sphenoid and maxilla

105

pterygopalatine fossa

farther into pterygomaxillary fissure

106

sphenopalatine formane

opening in pterygopalatine fossa in pterygomaxillary fissure

107

choanae

opening posterior to horizontal plate the connect nasal cavity and mouth

108

vertex

most superior point of skull on parietal bones

109

sutures

where bones of skull have fused

110

coronal suture

posterior edge of frontal bone

111

bregma

where coronal suture meets sagittal suture

112

sagittal suture

divides left and right parietal bones

113

lambda

where sagittal suture meets lambdoidal suture

114

lambdoidal suture

superior edge of occipital bone

115

superficial temporal artery

lateral sides of head anterior to ear, branch of external coratid artery, passes over zygomatic arch

116

auriculotemporal nerve

cutaneous, anterior to ear, sensory, branch of CN V3 mandibular division of trigeminal nerve

117

temporal fascia

fascia over temporalis muscle

118

temporalis muscle

chewing, temporal bones

119

zygomatic arch

arch in cheek creates by processes of zygomatic and temporal bonea

120

dura mater

tough outermost covering around CNS, periosteal and meningeal layers, vascular

121

arachnoid membrane

avascular, deep to dura

122

arachnoid trabeculae

delicate connections between arachnoid and pia layers

123

pia mater

thinn innermost covering of CNS, vascular

124

subarachnoid space

deep to arachnoid layer, contains CSF

125

middle meningeal artery

dural artery, enters skull through foramen spinosum, extends superiorly near ear, most common cause of epidural hemorrhage, leave grooves in the skull, branch of maxillary artery

126

superior sagittal sinus

dural venous sinus that runs ant - post on top of brain

127

venous dural sinus

created by reflexion of meninges around brain, valveless, allow infection and cancer to move easily

128

lateral venous lacunae

pools lateral to superior sagittal sinus

129

arachnoid granulations

arachnoid extensions through dura to return CSF to blood via sinuses, level dents in skull

130

cerebral veins

veins on surface of brain in pia

131

falx cerebri

meningeal layer between left and right hemispheres

132

tentorium cerebelli

meningeal layer that separates posterior cranial fossa from rest of cranial cavity, roof over cerebellum

133

CN I olfactory nerve

from olfactory bulb through cribriform plate to nasal cavity, sensory

134

CN II optic nerve

passes through optic canal, sensory, optic chiasma, optic tracts

135

CN III oculomotor nerve

passes through superior orbital fissure, motor, superior medial pons, small

136

CN IV trochlear nerve

passes through superior orbital fissure, motor, dorsal lateral pons, small

137

CN V trigeminal nerve

V1 - ophthalmic through superior orbital fissure, V2 - maxillary passes through foramen rotundum, V3 - mandibular passes through foramen ovale, motor and sensory, lateral pons, large

138

CN VI abducens nerve

passes through superior orbital fissure, motor, medial boundary of pons and medulla, small

139

CN VII facial nerve

passes through internal auditory meatus and exits through stylomastoid foramen, small, lateral medulla

140

CN VIII vestibulocochlear nerve

passes through internal auditory meatus, sensory, large, lateral medulla

141

CN IX glossopharyngeal nerve

passes through jugular foramen, sensory and motor, smaller, lateral medulla

142

CN X vagus nerve

passes through jugular foramen, sensory and motor, larger, lateral medulla

143

CN XI accessory nerve

passes through jugular foramen, motor, small, lateral medulla

144

CN XII hypoglossal nerve

passes through hypoglossal foramen, motor, small branches on anterior medulla

145

internal carotid artery

passes through carotid canal, next to optic nerve on inferior brain

146

pituitary gland

hangs into sella turcica off infundibulum off hypothalamus

147

posterior cranial fossa

indentations at back of skull

148

middle cranial fossa

indentations at lateral sides of skull

149

anterior cranial fossa

indentations at front of skull

150

vertebral arteries

pass through foramen magnum

151

falx cerebelli

meningeal layer that separates left and right cerebellum

152

inferior sagittal sinus

follows inferior curve of falx cerebri

153

cranial nerve saying

on old olympic towering tops, a finn and (realy vestibulo) german viewed a hops

154

cranial nerve saying

oh, oh, oh, to touch and feel very green vegetables Ah

155

straight sinus

posterior straight edge of falx cerebri

156

confluence of sinuses

where superior sagittal, straight, occipital, and transverse sinuses meet

157

transverse sinus

run laterally from confluence of sinuses

158

sigmoid sinus

in lateral inferior floor of posterior cranial fossa

159

occipital sinus

runs inferiorly from confluence point

160

sphenoparietal sinus

follows edge of lesser wing of sphenoid, enters cavernous sinus

161

cavernous sinus

enlargement of sinus on lateral sides of sella turcica

162

superior petrosal sinus

follows anterior edge of tentorium cerebelli medially to cavernous sinus

163

inferior petrosal sinus

runs inferiorly from sphenoid bone

164

trigeminal ganglia (gSA)

before V1 / 2 / 3 split behind eye orbital, contains cells bodies of sensory cells in all three branches

165

ophthalmic artery

branch of internal carotid artery, passes through optic canal

166

diaphragma sellae

meningeal layer the keeps pituitary gland in sella turcica

167

sella turcica

hole in sphenoid bone where pituitary gland is housed

168

orbicularis oculi muscle

around orbit of the eye, shuts the eyes, facial nerve

169

orbicularis oris muscle

around mouth, shuts mouth, puckers lips, facial nerve

170

buccinator muscle

deep in anterior cheek, allows you to blow out puckered lips, buccal branch of facial nerve

171

platysma muscle

jaw to clavicle, buccal branch of facial nerve

172

CN VII facial nerve

posterior to parotid gland, 5 branches - temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, cervical

173

five branches of facial nerve

temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, cervical

174

parotid gland

anterior to ear, superficial to masseter

175

parotid duct

runs from parotid gland anteriorly to buccal fat pad, superficial to masseter

176

masseter muscle

origin on zygomatic arch, inserts on angle of mandible, nerve to masseter muscle of mandibular nerve (V3) of trigeminal nerve

177

supraorbital foramen

supraorbital nerve of ophthalmic nerve (V1) of trigeminal nerve, sensory to forehead and top of head

178

infraorbital foramen

infraorbital nerve of maxillary nerve (V2) of trigeminal nerve, sensory to cheeks and upper lip

179

mental foramen

mental nerve of mandibular nerve (V3) of trigeminal nerve, sensory to lower lip / jaw / sides of head

180

frontalis muscle

forehead muscle

181

occipitalis muscle

back of head

182

facial artery and vein

veins are valveless, anastamose with other side of face, runs from lacrimal area down to jaw in front of masseter, branch of internal jugular vein

183

temporalis muscle

nerve to temporal muscle of mandibular nerve (V3) of trigeminal nerve, origin on temporal bone, insertion on coronoid process

184

lateral pterygoid muscle

nerve to lateral pterygoid muscle of mandibular nerve (V3) of trigeminal nerve, origin greater wing of sphenoid, insertion TMJ and condylar process, passes deep to temporalis and masseter

185

inferior alveolar nerve

passes into mandibular foramen, become the mental nerve when exiting mental foramen, sensory

186

parts of scalp

skin, connective tissue (where cutaneous vessels are), aponeurosis (between frontalis and occipitalis), loose connective tissue (allows scalp to move), periosteum / pericranium

187

diploic veins

in cancellous bone of skull between layers of compact bone

188

emissary veins

connect superficial veins to dural sinus by passing through holes in skull

189

supraorbital margin

ridge superior to eye orbital

190

meningeal arteries

found in dural layer, create grooves on inner surface of the skull, breakage of arteries creates epidural hemorrhage

191

dural reflexions

point where meningeal layer separates from periosteal layer

192

buccinator muscle

deep around mouth, allows you to blow out of puckered lips, innervated by CN VII - facial nerve

193

orbicularis oculi muscle

around eye, innervated by CN VII - facial nerve

194

orbicularis oris muscle

around mouth, innervated by CN VII - facial nerve, allows us to pucker our lips

195

platysma muscle

jaw to clavicle, innervated by CN VII - facial nerve

196

CN VII - facial nerve branches

temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, cervical, passes through parotid gland, enters skull through internal auditory meatus, exits skull through stylomastoif foramen, nerve of facial expression

197

parotid gland

anterior to ear, superficial to masseter

198

buccal fat pad

fills in cheek, superior to buccinator

199

massester muscle

attached between zygomatic arch and angle mandible, innervated by mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve (V3) which leaves the skull through foramen ovale

200

cervical nerve C2

supplies angle of mandible and neck for sensory, from ventral rami sensory branches, can have referred pain in neck from heart attack but not into face

201

facial artery

artery branch of external carotid, anterior of masseter to lateral nose, curvy

202

facial vein

branch of internal jugular vein, anterior of masseter to lateral nose, flat, valveless - can allow infection to spread via opthalmic veins into dural sinuses

203

parotid duct

superficial to massester, next to buccal branch of CN VII facial nerve, dives into buccal fat pad and muscle, enters oral cavity opposite 2 upper molar

204

danger zone on face

triangle around nose where infection can spread from facial vein into opthalmic vein into dural sinuses - making coagulation occur

205

pneumoparotid

wind-instrument players, glassblowers - air under positive pressure in oral cavity is forced up parotid duct into parotid gland, looks like air filled space on CT

206

nerve to the massester

branch of the mandibular nerve (V3) of the trigeminal nerve, passes through the mandibular notch and enters deep masseter

207

muscles of mastication

temporalis and masseter, innervated by V3 of trigeminal nerve

208

nerve to the temporalis

branch of the mandibular nerve (V3) of the trigeminal nerve

209

nerve to lateral pterygoid

branch of the mandibular nerve (V3) of the trigeminal nerve

210

mylohyoid nerve

branch off inferior alveolar nerve, passes through mylohyoid groove, innervates mylohyoid muscle and and anterior digastric

211

trigeminal motor nucleus (sVE)

group of nerve cell bodies in CNS related to nerve fiber, ex: V3 of trigeminal motor nucleus (sVE) is in the pons, V1 and V2 are sensory only so no need for connection to motor nucleus

212

facial motor nucleus (sVE)

to muscles of facial expression via CN VII - facial nerve, cell bodies in facial nucleus, at posterior junction of the pons and medulla

213

vertebral artery

passes through foramen magnum, supplies brainstem, comes together at junction of pons and medulla

214

internal carotid artery

passes through carotid canal, passes through cavernous sinus, supplies blood to eye and pituitary

215

external carotid artery

branch of internal carotid artery

216

anterior cerebral artery

branch of internal carotid artery, supplies medial surface of frontal cortex, stroke here = motor and sensory problems on opposite side of body especially in lower body / extremities

217

middle cerebral artery

branch of internal carotid artery, supplies insular cortex and lateral frontal cortex and internal capsule with nuclei, stroke here = problems with motor, speech, somatosensory on opposite side of the body, common location for embolism because they are moving fast and will take the straightest route, passes through lateral fissure

218

posterior communicating artery

branch of internal carotid artery, between internal carotid and posterior cerebral ,

219

circle of Willis

anterior cerebral artery --> anterior communicating artery --> anterior cerebral artery --> middle cerebral artery / internal carotid artery --> posterior communicating artery --> posterior cerebral artery --> posterior cerebral artery --> posterior communicating artery --> middle cerebral artery / internal carotid artery

220

posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)

branch of vertebral artery, supplies lateral medulla and inferior cerebellum, stroke = lateral medullary sundrome

221

anterior inferior cerebellar artery

branch of basilar artery

222

internal auditory artery

branch of basilar artery, goes into internal auditory meatus

223

basilar artery

confluence of vertebral arteries, good place for plaque formation, supplies pons

224

superior cerebellar artery

branch of basilar artery

225

posterior cerebral artery

branch of basilar artery, passes through tentorial notch, supplies occipital lobe, stroke here = blindness on opposite side and may effect the brainstem

226

venous drainage of brain

cerebral / diploic / emissary veins --> dural venous sinuses --> internal jugular veins

227

deep cerebral venous drainage of brain

venous tributaries --> thalamostriate veins + choroidal veins --> internal cerebral vein --> great cerebral vein (of Galen) --> straight sinus

228

lateral ventricles (1&2)

located in the cerebrum, parts: anterior horn, body, posterior horn, atrium, inferior horn

229

third ventricle

separates left and right diencephalic structures like thalamus and hypothalamus

230

fourth ventricle

posterior to pons and medulla, open to subarachnoid space

231

interventricular foramen

connects lateral ventricles, anterior to fornix and thalamus

232

cerebral aqueduct

duct between third and fourth ventricles, posterior to midbrain

233

lateral foramen

opening to subarachnoid space from fourth ventricle

234

median foramen

opening to subarachnoid space from fourth ventricle

235

cistern

accumulation of CSF in subarachnoid space

236

choroid plexus

found in floor or lateral ventricles, roof of third ventricle, and posterior surface of fourth ventricle, supplied by choroidal artery from internal carotid and posterior cerebral artery - some pass through choroid fissure, fourth ventricle supplied by choroidal vessels from vertebral arteries, makes 90% of CSF, made of fenestrated endothelium and ependymal epithelium

237

CSF

clear, colorless, 1-8 cells/mL, protein 15-45mg/dL, glucose 60-80 mg/dL, recumbent pressure 50-200 mm H2O, sitting pressure 200-300 mm H2O, forms 500-700mL/24hours, renewed 3-5 times a day, 200-250 mL total

238

arachnoid villi

where CSF is reabsorbed into dural venous sinuses, driven by higher hydrostatice pressure of CSF, higher osmotic pressure of blood proteins, and active transport in arachnoid villi

239

lateral pterygoid muscle

two heads, origin on sphenoid, insertion on condylar process (TMJ), supplied by V3, muscle of mastication, runs horizontally

240

medial pterygoid muscle

origin medial lateral ptyergoid plate, inserts on medial angle of mandible, elevates mandible, supplied by V3, muscle of mastication

241

maxillary artery

passes through spenopalatine foramen, branch of external carotid artery, passes through lateral pterygoid muscle

242

temporalmandibular joint (TMJ)

head of condylar process in mandibular fossa, joint separated by articular disc

243

middle meningeal artery

branch of maxillary artery, passes through foramen spinosum, in meningeal dura

244

auriculotemporal nerve

sensory branch of V3, passes TMJ, splits around middle meningeal artery, carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibers to parotid gland

245

inferior alveolar artery

branch of maxillary artery, follows inferior alveolar nerve into mandibular foramen

246

inferior alveolar nerve

branch of V3, sensory to teeth, passes through mandibular foramen, becomes mental nerve

247

nerve to parotid gland

preganglionic fibers in CN IX (glossopharyngeal), postganglionic cell bodies in otic ganglion medial to V3 after foramen ovale, postganglionic fibers run to parotid with auriculotemporal nerve

248

mylohyoid nerve

branch of inferior alveolar nerve, motor, V3, supplies mylohyoid and ant. digastric

249

lingual nerve

branch of V3, sensory to ant. 2/3 tongue, joined by chorda tympani nerve

250

chorda tympani nerve

branch of CN VII (facial), joins lingual nerve, preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to submandibular ganglion, taste, cell bodies in geniculate ganglion, passes over TM

251

superficial temporal artery

terminal branch of maxillary artery

252

external carotid artery

large, next to internal jugular vein in neck, gives rise to internal carotid / maxillary / superficial temporal artery

253

posterior belly of digastric muscle

medial mastoid process to superior hyoid bone, supplied by CN VII (facial), 2nd pharyngeal arch

254

stylohyoid muscle

from styloid process to inferior hyoid bone, supplied by CN VII (facial), 2nd pharygneal arch

255

inferior alveolar nerve

branch of V3, sensory to teeth, passes through mandibular foramen, becomes mental nerve

256

nerve to parotid gland

preganglionic fibers in CN IX (glossopharyngeal), postganglionic cell bodies in otic ganglion medial to V3 after foramen ovale, postganglionic fibers run to parotid with auriculotemporal nerve

257

mylohyoid nerve

branch of inferior alveolar nerve, motor, V3, supplies mylohyoid and ant. digastric

258

lingual nerve

branch of V3, sensory to ant. 2/3 tongue, joined by chorda tympani nerve

259

chorda tympani nerve

branch of CN VII (facial), joins lingual nerve, preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to submandibular ganglion, taste, cell bodies in geniculate ganglion, passes over TM

260

superficial temporal artery

terminal branch of maxillary artery

261

external carotid artery

large, next to internal jugular vein in neck, gives rise to internal carotid / maxillary / superficial temporal artery

262

posterior belly of digastric muscle

medial mastoid process to superior hyoid bone, supplied by CN VII (facial), 2nd pharyngeal arch

263

stylohyoid muscle

from styloid process to inferior hyoid bone, supplied by CN VII (facial), 2nd pharygneal arch