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Flashcards in Week 4 Deck (23):
1

Constitutional predisposing factors for atherosclerosis:

Age
Gender
Familiar Predisposition

2

Predisposing factors for acquired atherosclerosis

Hyperlipidemia
HTN
Homocysteine
Smoking
Diabetes

3

What 3 things can form a clot in arteriosclerosis?

RBCs and smooth muscle cells
Fat
CT cap

*3 parts of atheroma

4

What are 4 problems with atherosclerosis?

Narrowing of the lumen
Turbulent Blood Flow
Deposition of calcium into atheroma
Cracking/ ulceration of atheroma

5

__ can lead to sudden death in thhose with cracking/ ulceration of atheroma

Ballooning

6

Arteriosclerosis: Mockenberg's Medial Calcific Sclerosis: __-like calcification within the __ layer of the medium to small muscular arteries of __ course. NO INFLAMMATION. Common in which arteries?

ring
medial
obscure
Tibial, Femoral and Radial artery, arteries which supply the genitals over 50 y/o

7

Hyaline Arteriosclerosis: Occurs in __. Involves hyaline changes within the vascular wall. __ of the blood are pushed into the wall of the vessel. Is a common occurance in whch 3 pathologies?

Arterioles
Proteins
-DM- can cause microangiopathies, gangrene, loss of vision
-HTN
-*Benign Nephrosclerosis

8

What is benign nephrosclerosis?

Replacement of nephritic arterioles with hyaline
-deposition of glass-like substance

9

Hyperplastic Arteriosclerosis: Thickening of wall of arteriole __ and ___. Results in permanent narrowing of __. Will not rupture, but causes __ in the tissues. Characterized by __ skin changes of the vessel.

wall
GBM
lumen
ischemia
onion

10

Hyperplastic Arteriosclerosis: Foundation of __ hypertension- high diastolic pressure of at least __. Can lead to __ of arterioles. What is this referred to as?

Malignant
120
necrosis
Fibrinoid Necrosis

11

Aortic Insufficiency: Aortic valves can't keeo blow from backflowing - blood backs into the ventricle and __ in blood is poor- will see diastolic pressure as low as __-__ (could be __) __ is common as a result of aortic insufficiency

O2
20-30
0
Syphilis

12

Which artery is not involved in Rheumatic Fever?

Pulmonary

13

Bacterial Endocarditis: Infectious disease of heart- growth of bacteria in heart can lead to __. Whata are the 2 types?

death
Acute
Subacute

14

Acute Bacterial Endocarditis: Prognosis is __ and difficult to treat due to massive __ infection of the body. May be caused by various __. MCC is __ __ (but not the only cause)

bad
staph
infections
Staph Aureus

15

Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis: Also bad, but better than acute. Better chance of survival. MCC is __ __ AKA __ __

Strep viridans
Strep mitis

16

Bacterial Endocarditis: What are the main sources of infection?

Bad Tooth
Genitalia
Streptoderma (infection of skin) (blisters, acne, etc...)
Lungs (esp in those w/ pneumonia)
Gall Bladder (if infected/ source of chronic infection)

17

Bacterial Endocarditis: Which valve is most commonly involved?

Aortic
-mitral can be involved

18

Bacterial Endocarditis: There is a release of __ whch leads to destruction of __; you get regurgitation and affects the __ __ muscles

enzymes
valves
chordae tendinae

19

Bacterial Endocarditis: Non-obliteration of __ __- found in the fetus due to non-air breathing. Blood goes from Right A to left A- after delivery it goes away and ligaments remains. If it doesnt go away, there is a decrease in __ to the tissue--> decreased __ and __ development. Bacteria goes into __ arteries and into the lungs and causes embolism of capillaries- leads to lung __

ductus arteriosis
O2
Physical
Mental
pulmonary
infarction

20

Bacterial endocarditis is the MCC of Aortic __ and __

insifficiency
Regurge
*Dx with low Diastolic pressure

21

What are 2 complications of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis?

Ischemic Stroke
Petechiae Hemorrhages under the nail

22

Ischemic Stroke- Emboli that is made up of live __ goes through arterial vessels and goes to _(3)_. The proteolytic enzymes digest the wall of the artery and allow leakage of blood into __. Affects females __% of the time.

bacteria
brain, heart, kidneys
Brain
70

23

What is treatment of bacterial endocarditis?

Take huge amount of antibiotiics intravenously- around 50-100 million units a day