Week 7 Flashcards Preview

Pathology II Lecture > Week 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 7 Deck (47):
1

What is hydrocephauls?

Accumulation of CSF in ventricular system, will increase hydrostatic pressure

2

CSF is produced by __ __ in the ventricles

choroid plexus

3

Amount of CSF produced in 24 hrs.

500ml

4

The 4 ventricles of the brain can hold __ ml of CSF

150

5

**Sidenote: Draw out a CSF circulation

do it.

6

Communicating Hydrocephalus AKA

Non-obstructive

7

COmmunicating Hydrocephalus: Leptomeningitis- swelling of the __ granulation and will cause increased accumulation of ___ in the ventricles. The gyri jam up against the brain and __. This can cause a __.

arachnoid
CSF
flatten
headache

8

Non Communicating hydrocephalus: Can be congenital, or acquired __ in some part of the ventricular system or from a mass such as a __ __ (or hemorrhagic stroke) which blocks the normal flow of fluid.

scarring
brain tumor

9

What are the 3 classic signs of Hydrocephalus?

1. Headaches
2. Nausea/ Vomiting
3. Papilledema (swelling of optic disc)

10

What causes papilledema with hydrocephalus?

Increased ICP and prevention of normal venous outflow from the retina and disappearance of the clear boundary in the optic disc. Disc becomes opaque.

11

Alzheimer's: Amount of CSF if __ than it is supposed to be. Accumulation of fluid due to disappearance of __ tissue. Does not __ pressure because there is a loss of tissue and increased space in the skull. What is this known as?

increased
Brain
increase
Hydrocephalus ex vacuo

12

Huntington's can also cause ____ since the brain is atrophied. Also causes __ due to atrophy of striatal neurons. __ ganglia are damaged.

Hydrocephalus Ex vacuo
chorea
basal

13

Under normal circumstances, the brain receives __% of the cardiac output and utilizes about __% of the O2 consumed by the body.

15
20

14

Cerebral Vascular diseases (CVD) aka __ fall into 3 main categories. WHat are they?

Strokes
Infarcts (Ischemic stroke)
Hemorrhages (hemorrhagic stroke)
Parenchymal injuries

15

Infarcts (ischemic strokes) are caused by __ vascular __- can be partial or complete. These account for __% of all CVDs.

local
obstruction
80

16

Infarcts: Total Lacunar Infarction (AKA ___): Capillaries undergo __ changes and they get obliterated--> ___. MC with advanced __.

Hyaline Arteriosclerosis
hyaline
microinfactions
HTN

17

Hemorrhages occur within the brain __ of the __ space. These account for __% of all CVDs). May be __ or __.

parenchyma
subarachnoid
15
intracerebral
Subarachnoid

18

Parenchymal injuries are associated with general reduction in __ flow, including global hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Dilation of vessels may lead to __ __.

blood
Anaphylactic shock

19

What are 2 sources of thrombosis?

Mitral Stenosis
Artificial valves

20

What are the 2 types of Hemorrhagic stroke?

Intracerebral/ parenchymal/ hypertensive
Subarachnoid Hemorrhagic Stroke AKA Berry/ Saccular Aneurysm

21

Hemorrhagic stroke: Intracerebral: Long term __ leads to deposition of __ in the vasuclar wall making it brittle and with increased pressure can cause rupture of these vessels and leakage into __ tissue.

HTN
hyaline
brain

* blood can cause atrophy of brain tissue as it acts like a toxin to tissues when not in the vessel

22

Hemorrhagic Stroke: Subarachnoid (Berry): What is the problem in this condition? Where is MC? Where will hemorrhage occur?

Person is born with a weak middle layer of arteries--> Saccular or Berry aneurysm develops
MC in ACA
Hemorrhage occurs around the brain

23

Subarachnoid (Berry): Less than __ cm in diameter. Typically ruptured before __ y/o. Between __-__mm is most easily ruptured.

1
50
4-7

24

Giant Aneurysm: Can get up to __cm in diameter. Manifestation is similar to __ __

5
brain tumor

25

TIA: Fibrinolytic activity of blood can dissolve a thrombi after it obstructs the lumen and only obstructs blood flow for a short time. How is this manifested?

Amaurosis Fugax
Decreased blood flow to retina

26

What is Amaurosis Fugax?

Painless, temporary unilateral vision loss in one eye causes by temporary thrombosis of ophthalmic A.

27

3 types of CNS trauma; traumatic brain injuries

Epidural Hematoma
Subdural Hematoma
Brain traumatic parenchymal injury

28

Epidural Hematoma: Caused by rupture of the __ __ artery usually bc of its relationship with the weak __ bone. Pressure is so high that __ will separate from __ vault. Brain will swell due to prevent of __ outflow

middle meningeal
squamous
dura
cranial
venous

29

What are manifestations of subdural hematoma?

-Pain and neuro deficits (possible loss of consciousness)
-Non-communicating hydrocephalus
-Swelling--> additional compression
-Possible herniation

30

What are the 3 types of herniations that may develop with epidural hematoma?

Subfalcine (least dangerous)
Transtentorial (uncal/uncinate) (More dangerous)
Cerebellar (Tonsilar) (Most dangerous)

31

Subfalcine herniation: Compression of __ __ against __ __. This can also cause compresson of which artery?

cingulate gyrus
falx cerebri
anterior cerebral Artery

32

Transtentorial Hernia: Compression of __ margin of __ lobe against the __ __. Can cause compression of __ __ artery. Can cause compression of the __ fibers of CN__ --> may lead to permanent __ of pupil on the side of damage.

free
temporal
tentorium cerebelli
posterior cerebral
3
dilation

33

Cerebellar Herniation: Located in __ __ __. Acute version of __ __ malformation. Results in __ __ compression impacting __ and __ centers. __ hematoma can cause this and will lead to death.

posterior cranial fossa
Arnold-Chiari
brain stem
respiratory
cardiovascular

34

Duret Hemorrhage AKA __ __ __ is associated with __ hemorrhage. Due to kink in __ artery

secodary brainstem herniation
cerebellar
basilar

35

Subdural Hematoma: Blood doesn't collect in a preexisting space, but rather creates one at the __-__ junction. Usually follows __ that jerks the brain inside the head and damages it. Usually __ in origin coming from __ vein as it enters __ __ sinus.

dura-arachnois
trauma
venous
cerebral
superior sagittal

36

Subdural Hematoma: Lower blood pressure in __ veins makes damage not that bad. what are some possible manifestations?

bridging
headache, loss of consciousness, blindness, spots in eyes

37

Concussion: damage to what part of the brain? This can cause what 2 manifestations?

Reticular Activating system (RAS)
-Loss of consciousness- seconds to hours
-Retrograde amnesia- permanent loss of memory on events immediately prior to, during, and after the trauma.

38

Diffuse Axonal Injury: Stretching of ___ of __ matter. Usually associated with __. Most commonly involves which part of brain? What will you find with this?

axons
white
whiplash
brain stem
-Axonal Spheroids- aappear 2 hrs. after trauma (also found in alzheimers)

39

Contusion: Hemorrhage into the __ __ due to blunt trauma. Will have anatomical damage. Whata are the 2 types?

superficial parenchyma
Coup
Contra-Coup

40

Contusion: Coup: Damage of brain directly __ the area- head is __ and forced __.

under
immobile
mobile

"Vinnie, hit him in the ehad with a baseball bat."

41

Contra coup: Damage is in __ lobe if hit in the back of the head. Head __ forced __.

frontal
mobile
immobile

"Vinnia, slam his face into the cement."

42

Laceration: Tear of brain tissue and rupture of vessels--> __. Can be in two areas. what are they?

hemorrhage
Subarachnoid
Parenchyma

43

Laceration: MC involves which 2 areas of brain?

temporal
parietal

44

Basilar skull fracture: Can cause interruption of __ __ or opening for __. What are the 2 common types?

Cranial Nerves
Infection
Fx of Orbital plate of Frontal Bone
Fx of pyramid of temporal bone

45

Basilar Skull fracture: Fracture of orbital plate of frontal Bone: __ __ hemorrhage. Will cause __ eyes. Pt. will always have ___. Can cause __ because there is an opening in the brain.

Bilateral Periorbital
raccoon
rhinorrhea- CSF leakage (bc crack in basement of skull)
infection

46

Basilar Skull fracture: Fracture of pyramid of temporal bone: Hemorrhage behind the ear = __ sign. Can cause ___.

battle
Otorrhea- leakage of CSF from ear

47

Basilar skull fx: Treatment?

TMT to prevent infection and observe to make sure thet fx closes.