Xray: Mensuration Lines, Angles, Flashcards Preview

NBCE Part II/III > Xray: Mensuration Lines, Angles, > Flashcards

Flashcards in Xray: Mensuration Lines, Angles, Deck (77):
1

Basilar Angle

>152 = platybasia / basilar impression

(norm: 123-152)
aka Welcker's or Martins's BA

2

McGregor's Line

BEST LINE for basilar impression / invagination
(Pagets, osteomal, FD)

Odontoid is >8mm above in Males OR
Odontoid is >10mm above in Females

aka Basal Line

3

Chamberlain's Line

Basilar impression if >7mm above line
(Pagets, osteomal, FD)

aka Palato-occipital

4

Macrae's Line

Basilar Impression if occiput above line

aka Foramen Magnum Line

5

Atlantodental Interspace (ADI)

>3mm in adults
>5mm in children
Transverse ligament rupture or instability --> Downs, Inflammatory Arthritis

6

George's Line

antero / retro listhesis
subluxation

posterior bodies

7

Posterior Cervical Line

antero / retro listhesis
subluxation

spinolaminar junction

8

Stress Lines of Cervical Spine

Flexion C5/C6
Extension C4/C5

aka Ruth Jackson's lines
DDD, muscle spasm, joint fixation

9

Prevertebral Soft Tissues

PLT sandwich 7,14,21
R-pharyngeal: >7mm (C2-C4)
R-laryngeal: >14mm (C5)
R-tracheal: >22mm (C6-7)

Tumor, mass, hematoma

10

Cobb's Angle

BEST for scoliosis

11

Risser Ferguson

Scoliosis

12

Sacral Inclination

Norm: 30-72
Avg: 46

13

Ferguson's Angle

Sacral Base Angle // Lumbosacral Angle

Norm: 26-57
AVG: 41!!!

14

Meyerdings Grading Line

Spondylo grading

15

Ullmann's Line

L5 should be posterior or just at perpendicular line....IF L5 body crosses the line = ANTEROlisthesis
aka Garland Thomas

16

Garland Thomas Line

Spondylo

17

Einstein's Line

Measures >15mm...

18

Canal / Body Ratio

Canal Stenosis
Higher the ratio, smaller the canal

19

Lumbosacral Disc Angle

Lines are drawn parallel and through the INFERIOR END PLATE OF L5 AND SUPERIOR ENDPLATE OF S1
Normal = 10-15

20

Lumbar Gravity Line

Ferguson's Line
Hyper / Hypo Lordosis

Norm: line intersects sacral base (S1)
Ant to Sacrum = HYPERlordosis
Post to Sacrum = HYPOlordosis

21

Macnab's Line

Line intersects SAP (superior articular processes) =

Facet Imbrication
...facet arthrosis

22

Hadley's S Curve

Should like like an S, if not =
Facet Imbrication
...facet arthrosis

23

Kohler's Line

Protrusio Acetabuli

24

Shenton's Line

Should be smooth

SCFE - dislocation / fx/ dysplasia

aka Menard's or Makka

25

Iliofemoral Line

SCFE - dislocation / fx / dysplasia

26

Femoral Angle

aka MIKULICZ'S ANGLE
Norm: 120-130
130+ - Coxa VALGA
120- - Coxa vara

27

Skinner's Line

Line is drawn thorugh and parallel to the femoral shaft. A perpendicular line is drawn tangenital to the tip of the GT
Fovea capitus below line = fx or coxa vara

28

Klein's Line

BEST FOR SCFE!!!

29

PATELLAR POSITION

tendon length is 20% greater than the patellar length = patella alta

30

Heel Pad Measurement

Distance >25mm male, >23mm female
Acromegaly..."increased Heel Pad"

31

Boehler's Angle

Norm: 28-40 degree angle

>40 degree = fx with calcaneous dysplasia or fx

32

Sella Turcica size

- Seen on lateral skull
- Normal:
AP: 5-16 (11mm avg);
Vert: 4-12 (8mm avg)

** enlarged = neoplasm, aneurysm, empty sella syndrome

33

Digastric Line

aka Biventer Line

Line - C2: 1-21mm (11avg)
Line - C1/Co: 4-20 (4avg)

Measurements decrease with platybasia (Pagets, osteomal, FD)

34

Sagittal Dimension of Cervical Canal

C1: 22mm
C2: 20mm
C3: 18mm
C4-C7: 17mm

Pavlov's ratio --

35

Cervical Gravity Line

Line should pass through C7 body (from apex of odontoid)
-- assesses gravitational stress at cervicothoracic junction

36

Cervical Lordosis

Depths of C Curve
Method of Jochumsen
Angle of C curve
Method of Gore
Method of Drexier

37

Thoracic Cage Dimension

aka Straight Back Syndrome Eval

Males: 11-18cm (14)
Females: 9-15cm (12)

Less in either of those categories = SBS...check heart for murmurs

38

Lumbar Lordosis

50-60 degrees normal

39

Van Akkerveeken's Measurment of Lumbar Instability

Norm:

40

Intercrestal Line

Norm: line intersects bottom L4 body / disc = most stable

Helps to indicate where the most biomechanical stress is coming from

L4/5 Degen: HIGH line, long L5 TP, rudimentary rib, transitional vertebra

L5/S1 Degen: Line through L5 body, short L5 TP, no rud rib, no trans vert

41

Center Edge Angle

aka CE angle of Wiberg

Norm: 20-40 deg (36avg)

shallow angle = acetabular dysplasia --> DJD

42

Radioulnar Variance

Norm: 2 lines should be aligned

Difference of 5mm = significant

Negative UV = Keinbock's (AVN of lunate)
Positive UV = stress on the ulna

43

72in FFD

Fullspine
Chest: PA + Lat
Cervicals: neut + F/E + obl + lat

44

Tube Tilt

Cervicals
Butt
Extremities

45

Cervicals w/ TT

AO: 15 caud
PO: 15 ceph
AP: 15 ceph
Pillar: 35 ceph

46

Butt w/ TT

Sacral Base Tilt / Lumb Spot AP: 20-25 ceph
AP sacrum: 15 ceph
AP coccyx: 10 caud

47

Extremities w/ TT

AP knee: 5 ceph
Sunrise: 10 ceph
AP/OB foot: 10 ceph
Apical Lordotic: 30 ceph

48

akas for FFD

SID + TID

49

Lateral Skull View

Sella Turcica

50

PA Caldwell Projection

Frontal Sinus

51

AP Towne's View

Foramen Magnum

52

Water's View

Maxillary Sinus

53

Best to view a Jefferson's Burst FX

APOM

54

Cervical Obliques help to view

Motive IFV's

55

Evaluate ADI

Cervical flexion

56

Cervical Pillar View

articular processes and apophyseal joints

pillar = uncinates

57

Swimmer's View

Cervico Thoracic Junction

PP: standing, lateral position with arm closest to the bucky raised overhead; other arm hangs at patient's side

58

Which views have specific breathing instructions? What are the instructions?

PA Chest + Lat Chest + Apical Lordotic
Deep breath in and hold
**72" FFD

59

Apical Lordotic View

Pancoast tumor

60

Lateral Lumbar

IVF's of Lumbars

61

Ferguson's Projection

aka L5/S1 spot
aka Sacral Base Tilt

TT 25 cephalic

62

Lumbar Obliques

Motive is PARS!!!

63

To visualize the SI joint, what is the best TT?

30 cephalic

AP angulated SI Joints View

64

AC Jt w/ and w/o weights

AC joint
TT 5 cephalad

65

AP shoulder w/ EXT ROT

Greater Tub

66

AP shoulder w/ INT ROT

Lesser Tub

67

What makes up an elbow series?

AP
Medial (Int) Oblique
Lateral

68

AP Elbow PP

Seated
Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist against table
SUPINATED hand

69

Med Oblique Elbow PP

Seated
Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist against table
PRONATED hand

70

Lateral Elbow PP

Seated
Elbow FLEXED
Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist against table
PRONATED hand w/ thumb pointing towards tube

71

PA wrist PP

Seated
elbow + wrist against table
PRONATED hand w/ fingers curled in fist

72

PA Ulnar Deviation View

Scaphoid + Lunate

73

AP Pelvis PP

Standigng w/ feet turned in 15 degrees

74

Tunnel Projection View

Intercondylar Fossa

TT: 45 caudal
PP: prone w/ knee flexed to 45

75

Tangenital (Sunrise) View

Patella + Patellofemoral Jt Space

76

Medial Oblique Ankle PP

Supine
Leg extended
Ankle 90 dorsiflexion
Foot turned IN 5

77

Cathode consists of:

Large Filament
Small Filament
Focusing Cup