Flashcards in Year 2 Mix Deck (90)
how is congenital adrenal hyperplasia inherited and what causes it?
deficiency of one of the enzymes in the cortisol synthesis pathway
what is hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism?
AKA Kallmann's syndrome
isolated deficiency of LHRH or LH/FSH
how is Kallmann's syndrome inherited and how does it present?
X linked inheritance
difficulty with intercourse/failure to get an erection
endocrine test results of PCOS?
raised serum LH and prolactin
what is the most common cause of septic arthritis?
when might E coli cause a septic arthritis?
IV drug users
very old or very young
when might salmonella cause a septic arthritis?
sickle cell anaemia
describe general presentation of Conn's syndrome
hypertension and hypokalaemia with no specific symptoms
what is Conn's syndrome?
what is Pott's disease?
crush fracture of the thoracic spine as a result of tuberculosis osteomyelitis
what are charcots joints and what typically causes this?
severely deformed joints which result from neuropathic injury
causes = diabetic neuropathy and syringomyelia
which 2 hormones regulate calcium levels?
how does ACTH affect glucose levels?
ACTH stimulates cortisol release which stimulates gluconeogenesis
useful examination for suspected PCOS?
first line investigation for all cases of amenorrhoea?
pregnancy test (HCG test)
what hormones levels are associated with PCOS?
low sex hormone binding globulin
raised LH:FSH ratio
name a recognised treatment for head lice
what is permethrin used to treat?
what type of shampoo can be used for fungal infections of the scalp?
a colles fracture occurs within what distance of the wrist?
what are the 4 characteristic components of a colles fracture?
dorsal displacement of the distal fragment
radial displacement of the hand
radial shortening due to impaction
avulsion of the ulnar styloid
characteristic appearance of a colles fracture?
what is a Smith's fracture?
reverse colles fracture (ventral displacement of distal fragment)
what is a barton's fracture?
intra-articular colles fracture
what is ventral barton's fracture?
intra articular smiths fracture
unimpacted fractures of the femur are associated with limb shortening, true or false?
the proximal segment of the fractured femur is flexed by the iliopsoas and abducted by gluteus medius and minimus
the distal segment is pulled medially by the adductor muscles
this produces shortening of the limb
what is a pertrochanteric fracture and how does this produce AVN?
linear fracture through the greater and lesser trochanters
does not produce AVN as the fracture lies outwith the line of attachment of the hip capsule
what is a subcapital fracture?
type of intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck, just distal to the femoral head
associated with AVN as it is an intracapsular fracture
mechanism of action of "gliptins"?
inhibits DPP4 which is an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) (therefore an increased GLP-1)
this leads to a lack of glucagon and therefore a reduced blood glucose