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Flashcards in Year 2 Mix Deck (90)
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1

how is congenital adrenal hyperplasia inherited and what causes it?

autosomal recessive
deficiency of one of the enzymes in the cortisol synthesis pathway

2

what is hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism?

AKA Kallmann's syndrome
isolated deficiency of LHRH or LH/FSH

3

how is Kallmann's syndrome inherited and how does it present?

X linked inheritance
difficulty with intercourse/failure to get an erection
anosmia
cleft palate
renal abnormalities
colour blindness

4

endocrine test results of PCOS?

raised serum LH and prolactin
normal FSH
low SHBG

5

what is the most common cause of septic arthritis?

staph aureus

6

when might E coli cause a septic arthritis?

IV drug users
very old or very young
immunocompromised

7

when might salmonella cause a septic arthritis?

sickle cell anaemia

8

describe general presentation of Conn's syndrome

hypertension and hypokalaemia with no specific symptoms

9

what is Conn's syndrome?

primary hyperaldosteronim

10

what is Pott's disease?

crush fracture of the thoracic spine as a result of tuberculosis osteomyelitis

11

what are charcots joints and what typically causes this?

severely deformed joints which result from neuropathic injury
causes = diabetic neuropathy and syringomyelia

12

which 2 hormones regulate calcium levels?

PTH
calcitonin

13

how does ACTH affect glucose levels?

ACTH stimulates cortisol release which stimulates gluconeogenesis

14

useful examination for suspected PCOS?

pelvic ultrasound

15

first line investigation for all cases of amenorrhoea?

pregnancy test (HCG test)

16

what hormones levels are associated with PCOS?

high testosterone
low sex hormone binding globulin
raised LH:FSH ratio

17

name a recognised treatment for head lice

dimeticone gel

18

what is permethrin used to treat?

scabies

19

what type of shampoo can be used for fungal infections of the scalp?

ketoconazole shampoo

20

a colles fracture occurs within what distance of the wrist?

2.5 cm

21

what are the 4 characteristic components of a colles fracture?

dorsal displacement of the distal fragment
radial displacement of the hand
radial shortening due to impaction
avulsion of the ulnar styloid

22

characteristic appearance of a colles fracture?

dinner fork

23

what is a Smith's fracture?

reverse colles fracture (ventral displacement of distal fragment)

24

what is a barton's fracture?

intra-articular colles fracture

25

what is ventral barton's fracture?

intra articular smiths fracture

26

unimpacted fractures of the femur are associated with limb shortening, true or false?

true
the proximal segment of the fractured femur is flexed by the iliopsoas and abducted by gluteus medius and minimus
the distal segment is pulled medially by the adductor muscles
this produces shortening of the limb

27

what is a pertrochanteric fracture and how does this produce AVN?

linear fracture through the greater and lesser trochanters
does not produce AVN as the fracture lies outwith the line of attachment of the hip capsule

28

what is a subcapital fracture?

type of intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck, just distal to the femoral head
associated with AVN as it is an intracapsular fracture

29

mechanism of action of "gliptins"?

DPP4 inhibitors
inhibits DPP4 which is an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) (therefore an increased GLP-1)
this leads to a lack of glucagon and therefore a reduced blood glucose

30

mechanism of action of "glitazones"?

PPAR-gamma agonist