Embryology of the Head & Neck Flashcards Preview

Unit 3: Embryology JC > Embryology of the Head & Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Embryology of the Head & Neck Deck (85)
1

Stomodeum gives rise to the ____.

mouth

2

Frontal nasal prominence gives rise to the ____.

nose

3

How many pairs of pharyngeal arches form?

5

4

1st pharyngeal arch has 2 sub units: ____ and ____.

maxillary and mandibular prominences

5

Formation of pharyngeal arches is driven by proliferation and migration of ____.

neural crest cells

6

Pharyngeal arches are covered by ____. lined by ____, with a core made up of ____.

ectoderm, endoderm, mesenchyme

7

1st pharyngeal arch is innervated by ____.

CN V - Trigeminal

8

2nd pharyngeal arch is innervated by ____.

CN VII - Facial

9

3rd pharyngeal arch is innervated by ____.

CN IX - Glossopharyngeal

10

4th & 6th pharyngeal arches are innervated by ____.

CN X - Vagus

11

The 1st pharyngeal arch differs from the others, in that it is lined predominantly by ____.

ectoderm

12

Pharyngeal ____ separate the arches from the outside.

grooves

13

Pharyngeal ____ separate the arches from the inside.

pouches

14

The ____ is where the ectoderm and endoderm come together at the grooves/pouches.

pharyngeal membrane

15

neural crest derivatives of arch 1 - maxillary prominence

facial bones (maxillary, zygomatic, squamous portion of temporal)

16

neural crest derivatives of arch 1 - mandibular prominence

Meckel's Cartilage - mandible, inner ear bones (incus & malleus), anterior ligament of malleus

17

neural crest derivatives of arch 2

Reichart Cartilage - lesser cornu of hyoid (superior), stylohyoid ligament, styloid process, stapes

18

neural crest derivatives of arch 3

body & greater cornu of hyoid (inferior)

19

neural crest derivatives of arch 4/6

thyroid & cricoid cartilage

20

mesoderm derivatives of arch 1

muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, mylohyoid, ant. digastric, tensor tympani)

21

mesoderm derivatives of arch 2

muscles of facial expression (buccinator, orbicularis oris, frontalis, etc), stylohyoid, & post. digastric

22

mesoderm derivatives of arch 3

stylopharyngeus

23

mesoderm derivatives of arch 4/6

pharyngeal constrictors, m. of soft palate, & m. of larynx

24

sensory innervation of arch 1

CN V - somatosensation of face, teeth, palate, and ant. 2/3 of tongue

25

sensory innervation of arch 2

CN VII - taste to ant. 2/3 of tongue

26

sensory innervation of arch 3

CN IX - taste and somatosensory to post. 1/3 of tongue

27

sensory innervation of arch 4/6

CN X - taste and somatosensory to pharynx, larynx & esophagus

28

endoderm derivative of pharyngeal pouch 1

middle ear cavity & auditory tube

29

endoderm derivative of pharyngeal pouch 2

palatine tonsils

30

endoderm derivative of pharyngeal pouch 3

inferior parathyroid glands & thymus

31

endoderm derivative of pharyngeal pouch 4/6

superior parathyroid glands & ultimopharyngeal bodies

32

derivative of pharyngeal groove 1

external auditory meatus

33

derivative of pharyngeal grooves 2-4

cervical vesicle, which eventually degrades

34

Cervical cyst/fistula/sinus occurs due to incomplete degradation of the ____.

cervical vesicle

35

The ____ forms as a diverticulum in the endoderm between pharyngeal arch 1 & 2.

thyroid primordium

36

The ____ connects the thyroid primordium with the ____ and eventually opens into the tongue via the ____.

thyroglossal duct, pharynx, foramen cecum

37

The thyroglossal duct typically ____, but in rare cases remains and forms the ____ of the thyroid.

degrades, pyramidal lobe

38

A ____ occurs when the thyroglossal duct improperly or incompletely degrades. Sometimes it contains ectopic thyroid tissue.

thyroglossal duct cyst

39

The development of the tongue involves pharyngeal arches ____ to ____.

1 to 4

40

The ____ develops in the first pharyngeal arch as the beginning of the development of the tongue.

median lingual swelling

41

The median lingual swelling plays an inductive role in the formation of the ____.

lateral lingual swelling

42

The lateral lingual swelling gives rise to the ____.

anterior 2/3 of the tongue

43

In tongue formation, the 2nd pharyngeal arch gives rise to the ____ which eventually degrades, but plays an inductive role in the formation of the ____ from arches 3 & 4.

copula, hypopharyngeal eminence

44

In tongue formation, the 2nd pharyngeal arch also gives rise to the ____.

taste buds

45

The hypopharyngeal eminence from pharyngeal arches 3 & 4 gives rise to the ____.

posterior 1/3 of the tongue

46

The median sulcus of the tongue is a remnant of ____.

the fusion of the lingual swellings

47

The terminal sulcus of the tongue is a remnant of ____.

the fusion between pharyngeal arch 1 and the hypopharyngeal eminence

48

The skeletal muscles of the tongue develop from ____, around week 5 of development.

occipital somites

49

The anterior 2/3 of the tongue gets somatosensory innervation from ____ and special sensory (taste) innervation from ____.

CN V(3), CN VII

50

The posterior 1/3 of the tongue gets somatosensory innervation from ____ and ____ and special sensory (taste) innervation from ____.

CN IX and X, CN IX

51

The muscles of the tongue get motor innervation from ____.

CN XII

52

What are the 4 types of papillae on the tongue?

filiform, fungiform, folliate, and circumvallate

53

Which papillae of the tongue contain taste buds?

fungiform, folliate, and circumvallate

54

Taste buds relay special sensory (taste) information via ____ and ____.

CN VII and IX

55

Formation of the face begins as how many facial primordia around the stomodeum?

5

56

What are the 5 facial primordia?

Frontonasal Prominence (FNP), Paired Maxillary Prominences (MxP), and Paired Mandibular Prominences (MdP)

57

An ectodermal thickening, called the ____, forms on the FNP.

nasal placodes

58

The mesenchyme below the nasal placodes proliferates and elevates up around the nasal placodes to form the ____.

nasal prominences

59

The nasal placode invaginates into the underlying mesenchyme to form the ____ and dilates to become the ____.

nasal pit, nasal sac

60

Growth and enlargement of the ____ push the nasal prominences to the midline, forcing them to fuse.

maxillary prominences

61

Midline fusion of the nasal prominences gives rise to the ____ and ____.

bridge of the nose, intermaxillary segment

62

The intermaxillary segment gives rise to the ____, ____, and ____.

philtrum (of upper lip), upper jaw w/ 4 incisors, primary palate

63

The intermaxillary segment fuses with the ____ to allow fusion of the ____ and ____.

maxillary prominences, upper lip, palate

64

____ also fuse with the maxillary prominence, and incomplete fusion results in ____.

lateral nasal prominences, oblique cleft

65

____ forms at the site of fusion between the MxP and lateral nasal prominences, due to thickening and invagination of the ectoderm.

nasolacrimal duct

66

The two ____ fuse at the midline to form a single nasal cavity.

nasal pits

67

During development, the oral and nasal cavities are continuous due to the rupture of the ____.

oronasal membrane

68

Formation of the ____ ultimately separates the oral and nasal cavities.

secondary palate

69

____ develop from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.

nasal conchae

70

Cranial ectoderm in the nasal cavity differentiates to become the specialized ____.

olfactory epithelium

71

The primary palate is derived from the ____.

intermaxillary segment

72

The secondary palate is derived from the fusion of the ____.

palatine shelves

73

The palatine shelves grow from the ____.

maxillary prominence

74

At about week 9, the growing mandible allows the tongue to drop down, leaving room for the ____ to fuse at the midline, and to fuse anteriorly with the ____.

palatine shelves, primary palate

75

Improper fusion of palatine shelves or of primary and secondary palate can result in ____.

cleft palate

76

____ is an autosomal dominant gene mutation in a protein involved in preribosomal processing. Symptoms include cleft palate, micronathia, conductive deafness, and deformed facial features. Results from neural crest defects in pharyngeal arches ___ and ___.

Treacher Collins Syndrome, 1 and 2

77

____ is characterized by micronathia, cleft palate, and susceptibility to respiratory distress syndrome at birth. It presents with heterogeneous birth defects with a range of severity.

Pierre Robin Syndrome

78

____ is caused by a ~30 gene deletion on chromosome 22. It presents with a wide range of complications and severity, and is due to neural crest defects in pharyngeal arches & pouches ___, ___, ___, and ___.

DiGeorge Syndrome, 1, 2, 3, 4

79

____ is the ectodermal origin of the teeth that develops in the mandible and maxilla.

dental lamina

80

Dental lamina invaginates to form ____, which invaginate into themselves to form a cap around the condensing ____.

dental buds, dental papilla

81

The dental papilla is mesenchyme derived from ____.

neural crest cells

82

Each jaw (upper and lower) develops how many dental buds?

10

83

The dental papilla (mesenchyme) differentiate into ____, which give rise to ____.

odontoblasts, dentin

84

The outer epithelial/ectodermal dental cells differentiate into ____, which give rise to ____.

amelobasts, enamel

85

Both ____ and ____ teeth are generated during fetal development, but their developmental stages are staggered.

deciduous, adult