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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (219):
1

During the Follicular Phase

Estrogen levels rise steadily – promotes growth and activation of the follicle cells
Progesterone levels peak in the middle and then fall
Progesterone is the major hormone produced
The uterus is in the secretary phase

Estrogen levels rise steadily – promotes growth and activation of the follicle cells

2

During the luteal phase, the positive feedback action on LH secretion is blocked by

Inhibin- (-) feedback on Ant. Pit to suppress FSH
GABA /estrogen
Progesterone- (-)feedback on GnRH neurons- suppresses the ability to respond to estrogen
FSH

GABA /estrogen

3

Sertoli Cells

Produce Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone
Control the process of spermatogenesis
Produce Luminal Fluid
All of the above

All of the above

4

Which of the following is not produced by the human Corpus Luteum?

Progesterone- Relexin, oxytocin
Inhibin- suppresses FSH
Estrogen
Luteinizing Hormone

Luteinizing Hormone

5

Atresia Occurs when

There is excess FSH during the follicular phase
There is too high a ratio of Estrogen : Androgen
There is inadequate LH during the luteal phase
There are numerous large peaks of LH during the luteal phase

There is too high a ratio of Estrogen : Androgen

6

Which of the following stimulates uterine contractions at parturition?

Progesterone – decreases contractility
Oxytocin
Prostaglandins F2 Alpha
Estrogen- allows expansion
Relaxin- allows expansion
Mark all that apply

Oxytocin
Prostaglandins F2 Alpha
Estrogen- allows expansion
Relaxin- allows expansion

7

Which of the following inhibits Calcitonin secretion?

Eating
Estrogen
Glucagon
Low levels of blood calcium

Low levels of blood calcium

8

Parathormone stimulates

Osteoblasts to produce the protein matrix of bone
Osteoclasts to release enzymes that digest the protein of bone
Osteoclasts to secrete bases to raise interstitial fluid PH
The uptake of phosphate from kidney tubule fluid into blood

Osteoclasts to release enzymes that digest the protein of bone

9

Sertoli Cells

Produce Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone
Control the process of spermatogenesis
Produce luminal fluid
All of the above

All of the above

10

Which of the following stimulates uterine contractions at parturition?

Relaxin
Prostaglandins F2 Alpha
Progesterone
Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin

Prostaglandins F2 Alpha

11

Which of the following is true?

You can diagnose an endocrine pathology based on a single symptom
Autoimmune responces always cause hypersecretion of a hormone
A hypoendocrine condition of Hormone A could be the result of too high a level of a hormone that opposes the action of a Hormone A
Hypo endocrine conditions are always the result of inadequate hormone secretion

A hypoendocrine condition of Hormone A could be the result of too high a level of a hormone that opposes the action of a Hormone A

12

Embryonic Development of the testis requires

The presence of the testis determining gene
The absence of estrogen
The presence of testosterone
All of the above

The presence of the testis determining gene

13

Embryonic Development of the uterus and oviduct requires

The presence of a functioning ovary
The absence of Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone
The Absence of Testosterone
2 x chromosomes

The absence of Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone

14

In the male LH secretion is suppressed by

Inhibin
FSH- no FSH receptors on leydig cells
Testosterone
Normal Levels of Prolactin- increases LH receptor number

Testosterone

15

In a castrated male blood levels of

LH will be absent
LH will be elevated
LH will be lower then normal
Inhibin will be elevated

LH will be elevated

16

Which of the following can increase the secretion of testosterone?

Normal Levels of Prolactin
Low Social Status
Estrogen
High Levels of Cortisol

Normal Levels of Prolactin

17

Gonadotrophion Releasing Hormone Stimulates the secretion of?

LH
FSH
FSH and LH
Prolactin

FSH and LH

18

Which of the following hormones is not involved in sperm Production?

FSH
Relaxin- sperm maturation
Testosterone
Estrogen

Estrogen

19

Granulose Cells

Regulate maturation of the oocyte
Produce Follicular Fluid
Produce progesterone
All of the above

All of the above

20

Theca Interna Cells Produce

Inhibin
Androgens- estrogen
Lutenizing Hormone- respond to
All of the above

Androgens- estrogen

21

The Dominate Follicle is the:

Follicle that causes atresia of the other follicles by secreting inhibin
One that produces the least estrogen
One that produces the most androgen
The one with the fewest FSH receptors

Follicle that causes atresia of the other follicles by secreting inhibin

22

Atresia of follicles occurs if

They do not get FSH Support when they need it
There are multiple large peaks of LH during the follicular Phase
The Androgen to estrogen ratio in the follicular fluid is too high
All of the above

All of the above

23

Calcitrol

Stimulates the uptake of Calcium (PO4 & Mg++) from the digestive tract
Stimulates the excretion of Calcium in urine
Stimulates osteoblast activity
Inhibits osteoclast activity

Stimulates the uptake of Calcium (PO4 & Mg++) from the digestive tract

24

Calcitonin

Stimulates Osteoclast Activity- calcitriol
Stimulates the Transfer of calcium from the kidney tubule into the blood
Stimulates the release of calcium from bone
Stimulates osteoblasts to secrete the protein matrix of bone

Stimulates osteoblasts to secrete the protein matrix of bone

25

Testosterone production is stimulated by

Hyperprolacrinemia (elevated prolactin levels)
LH
FSH
Elevated Levels of Cortisol

LH

26

Which of the following stimulates Testosterone synthesis?

Estrogen
Normal Levels of Proclactin - & LH
Testicular GnRH
Testosterone

Normal Levels of Proclactin - & LH

27

Which of the Following Inhibits the secretion of FSH?

Testosterone
Inhibin
Hypothalamic GnRH
All of the Above

Inhibin

28

Which of the following exerts Negative Feedback control on LH Secretion?

Testosterone
Hypothalamic GnRH
Inhibin
All of the Above

Testosterone

29

FSH is required for the development of

primordial follicle (under any endocrine environment)
a secondary follicle (under any endocrine environment)
a primary follicle (under any endocrine environment)
all of the above

a secondary follicle (under any endocrine environment)

30

Theca interna Cells are stimulated by

FSH
LH
Inhibin
GnRH

LH

31

The preovulatory surge of LH is stimulated by positive feedback action of

Estrogen
Androgen
Prolactin
Inhibin

Estrogen

32

The Corpus Luteum Forms From

Atretic Follicles
Oocytes that fail to ovulate
The Granulosa and Theca cells of the ovulated follicle
Interstitial tissue of Ovary

The Granulosa and Theca cells of the ovulated follicle

33

Luteolysis occurs due to

Inadequate FSH
Lack of LH or hCG
Too much progesterone
Too much Inhibin

Lack of LH or hCG

34

In the male LH secretion is suppressed by

Inhibin
FSH
Testosterone
Normal levels of Prolactin- excess prolactin

Testosterone

35

A woman’s steroid hormone profile is most like a man’s during

Menstruation
The middle of the luteal phase
The middle of the follicular phase
The 2 days before menstruation

The 2 days before menstruation

36

Which hormone stimulates the secretion of the preovulatory gondadotrophin peak?

Progesterone
Testosterone
Estrogen
Inhibin

Estrogen

37

At which time during the female reproductive cycle do rising levels of estrogen inhibit GnRH secretion by the hypothalamus?

The middle of the follicular phase
Just prior to ovulation
The middle of the luteal phase
Just prior to menstruation

Just prior to ovulation

38

Negative feedback control of GnRH Secretion during the luteal phase is exerted by

Estrogen
Progesterone
Inhibin
GABA

Progesterone

39

Estrogen Stimulates

Glandular secretions of the uterus
Mitosis and duct growth in the mammary gland
Lipolysis
All of the above

All of the above

40

Luteinizing Hormone Stimulates

Ovulation
Completion of the first meiotic division of the oocyte
Formation of the corpus leutum
All of the above

All of the above

41

Luteolysis occurs due to a lack of

LH or hCG
Prostaglandins F 2 Alpha
Estrogen
Progesterone

LH or hCG

42

Which of the following does not stimulate uterine contractions?

Oxytocin
Progesterone
Prostaglandins F2 Alpha
Estrogen

Progesterone

43

At Ovulation Granulosa cells produce

histamine
bradykinins
prostaglandin F2 Alpha
All of the above

All of the above

44

Which of the following hormones is not produced by the placenta?

human chorionic gondaotrophion
estrogen
androgens
progesterone

Androgens

45

Which of the following hormones stimulates milk synthesis?

Oxytocin
Prolactin
Progesterone
Estrogen

Prolactin

46

Which of the following does not increase oxytocin secretion?

Estrogen
Prostaglandins F 2 Alpha
Having the woman in labor lie on her back to relieve the opressure of the fetal head on the uterine cervix
Mechanical stimulates of the mammary glands

Having the woman in labor lie on her back to relieve the opressure of the fetal head on the uterine cervix

47

Sperm production and maturation is stimulates by

Testosterone
Follicle stimulateing Hormone
Relaxin
All of the above

All of the above

48

Sertoli cells

Regulate Spermatogenesis
Secrete Inhibin
Produce androgen binding protein
All of the above

All of the above

49

Which of the following is found completely inside of the blood-testis barrier?

Sertoli cells
Secondary Spermatocytes
Leydig cells
Spermatogonia

Sertoli cells

50

Which of the following exerts negative feedback control of LH secretion?

Hypothalamic GnRH
Testosterone
Inhibin
All of the above

Testosterone

51

Which of the following inhibits the secretion of FSH

Inhibin
Testosterone
Hypothalamic GnRH
All of the above

Inhibin

52

Testosterone secretion can be influenced by

Time of day
Age
Social interactions with other people
All of the above

All of the above

53

Which of the following stimulates the secretion of Both FSH and LH

Testicular GnRH
Melatonin
Huypothalamic GnRH
Prolactin

Huypothalamic GnRH

54

Which of the following go through meiosis

spermatids
spermatocytes
sperm
spermatogonia

Spermatocytes

55

During spermatogenesis

Spermatids lose cytoplasm and form a tail
Sperm are released from the testis
Spermatogonia differenitiate into spermatocytes
Spermatids divide to produce sperm

Spermatids lose cytoplasm and form a tail

56

Luteolysis occurs due to

inadequate FSH
Too little Progesterone
A lack of LH of hCG
Inadequate Inhibin Levels

A lack of LH of hCG

57

Which of the following is Not caused by the preovulatory surge of LH?

ovulation
menstruation
completion of the first meiotic division of the oocyte
progesterone secretion

menstruation

58

During the luteal phase the positive feedback action on LH secretion is blocked by

Inhibin -FSH
GnRH
Estrogen
Progesterone

Estrogen

59

The secretion of GnRH can be inhibited by - testosterone
Hyper Prolactinemia
Hypo Prolactinemia
Preovulatory levels of estrogen
Good nutrition

Hyper prolactinemia

60

Estrogen does not stimulate

growth of uterine glandular ducts
growth of the vaginal epithelium
growth of mammary glandular ducts
uterine glandular secretions

uterine glandular secretions

61

The acrosome reaction causes

The fertilization of an egg by a sperm
The digestion of the zona pellucida
Capacitation of sperm
Transport of sperm from the vagina to the oviduct

The digestion of the zona pellucida

62

Sperm can survive the longest in

The vagina
The uterus
Estrogen stimulated cervical mucous
Progesterone Stimulated Cervial Mucous

Estrogen stimulated cervical mucous

63

Milk Synthesis is stimulated by

Prolactin
Progesterone
Estrogen
Alll of the above

Prolactin

64

The release of milk from the mammary gland is dependent on

Prolactin
Oxytocin
Estrogen
Progesterone

Oxytocin

65

Which of the following inhibits uterine contractions?

Prostaglandis F2 Alpha
Oxytocin
Progesterone
Estrogen

Progesterone

66

Calcitriol

stimulates the uptake of Calcium from the digestive tract
stimulates the excretion of calcium in urine
stimulates calcium deposition in bone
inhibits osteoclast activity

stimulates the uptake of Calcium from the digestive tract

67

Calcitonin

Stimulates Osteoclast activity- ( no… osteoblast)
Stimulates the transfer of Calcium from the kidney tubule into the blood
Stimulates the release of calcium from bone
Stimulates osteoblasts to secrete the protein matrix of bone

Stimulates osteoblasts to secrete the protein matrix of bone

68

Calcitonin

Synthesis is inhibited by estrogens and androgens
Secretion is stimulated by Cholescystokinin
Stimulates Appetite
Secretion is inhibited by Calcitriol

Secretion is stimulated by Cholescystokinin

69

Parathormone releated peptide

Stimulates the uptake of Calcium from the digestive tract
Stimulates the transfer of calcium into the mammary glands
Synthesis is inhibited by Prolactin
Synthesis is stimulated by Parathormone

Stimulates the transfer of calcium into the mammary glands

70

Which of the following has inadequate bone protein matrix?

Rickets
Osteomalacia
Osteoporosis
All of the above

Osteoporosis

71

Which of the following is likely to be observed in Hyperparathyroidism?

Strong bones
Numerious overactice osteoclasts
Hypocalcemia
Skeletal muscle tetany

Numerious overactice osteoclasts

72

In order for an embryonic ovary to develop one needs

The absence of Mullerian Inhibitng Hormone
Estrogen
One normal X Chromosome and no Y Chromosome
Two normal X Chromosomes

The absence of Mullerian Inhibitng Hormone

73

The embryonic differentiation of a testis requires

The testis determining gene
Functional androgen receptors
Androgens
The absence of estrogens

The testis determining gene

74

The development of the embryonic brain in the male direction is determined by

Testosterone
The presence of a Y Chromosome
Di Hydro-testosterone (DHT)
The presence of male external genitals

Testosterone

75

When embryonic hormone levels cause the development of sexually dimorphic nuclei, they are exerting

negative feedback
an activational effect
positive feedback
and organizational effect

an activational effect

76

The embryonic development of a uterus depends on

The absence of androgens
The presence of mullerian inhibiting hormone
The absence of mullerian inhibiting hormone
The presence of functional ovaries

The absence of mullerian inhibiting hormone

77

The embryonic development of the internal male reproductive tract requires

the absence of mullerian inhibiting hormone
the presence of testes
the ability to convert testosterone into DHT
androgens and functional androgen receptors

androgens and functional androgen receptors

78

The Development of male external genitals depends on

Testosterone
Functional androgen receptors
The ability to convert testosterone into DHT
All of the above

All of the above

79

An embryo with a normal Y chromosome, who lacks androgen receptors will have

No internal reproductive structures at all, a female external appearance and a male brain
Testes, a uterus and a vagina
Testes, no internal reproductive tract and a female external appearance
????????The development of a penis at puberty but otherwise be normally female

No internal reproductive structures at all, a female external appearance and a male brain

80

Di-Hydro-testosterone is needed for

embryonic development of the external male genitals
adult development of femal mammary tissue
embryonic development of the internal male reproductive tract
the synthesis of testosterone

embryonic development of the external male genitals

81

Testosterone production is stimulated by

Hyperprolactenemia
Lutenizing hormone
Follicle stimulating hormone
Inhibin

LH

82

The rate limiting step for testosterone production by the testes is

Cholesterol side chain cleavage
Estrogen synthesis
The loss of 2 carbons from progesterone
Vitamin D3 Synthesis

Cholesterol side chain cleavage

83

Leydig cells produce

luteinizing hormone
mulleriam inhibiting hormone
testosterone
inhibin

Testosterone

84

The secretion of Parathormone is stimulated by

low blood calcium
elevated blood calcium
calcitriol
parathyroid stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary

low blood calcium

85

The secretion of calcitriol is stimulated by

low blood calcium
parathormone
high blood calcium
calcitonin

parathormone

86

The secretion of calcitonin is stimulated by

Thyroid stimulating hormone
Low blood calcium
Parathormone
High blood calcium

High blood calcium

87

Parathormone Related Peptide

Stimulates the uptake of calcium from the digestive tract
Synthesis is inhibitied by Prolactin
Stimulates the uptake of Calcium by the mammary glands
Synthesis is stimulated by Parathormone

Stimulates the uptake of Calcium by the mammary glands

88

Calcitonin

Secretion is stimulated by Cholescystokinin- digestion
Synthesis is inhibited by estrogens and androgens- stimulated
Stimulates appetite
All of the above

Secretion is stimulated by Cholescystokinin- digestion

89

Calcitriol is synthesized by

The liver
The skin
The Kidney
The parathyroid Gland

The kidney

90

Vitamin D3 is necessary for bone remodelling because

it opposes the action of calcitriol on bone
it is a preprohormone of calcitriol
it acts directly on bone at normal concentrations of Vitamin D3 in the blood
it is a cofactor for the enzyme that synthesizes calcitonin

it is a preprohormone of calcitriol

91

Which of the following has adequate bone protein matrix, but inadequate bone calcium phosphate deposits?

Rickets
Hypoparathyroidism
Osteoporosis
All of the above

Rickets

92

Which of the following hormones stimulates protein synthesis by osteoblasts?

Growth Homone Via Insulin like growth factors
Insulin
Androgens
All of the above

All of the above

93

The embryonic differentiation of a testis requires

Functional androgen receptors
Androgens
The testis determining gene
The ability to convert testosterone to DHT

The testis determining gene

94

The embryonic differentiation of an ovary will occur in an individual with

2 normal x chromosomes
an xo (turner’s syndrome)
an XY who lacks the testis determining gene
all of the above

2 normal x chromosomes

95

The embryonic development of a uterus depends on

the absence of androgens
the absence of mullerian inhibiting hormone
the presence of mullerian inhibiting hormone
the presence of functional ovaries

the absence of mullerian inhibiting hormone

96

The embryonic development of the internal male reproductive tract requires

The presence of testes
Functional androgen receptors
The ability to convert testosterone in DHT
All of the above

Functional androgen receptors

97

The development of the embryonic brain in the male direction is determined by

DHT
Testosterone
The presence of a Y chromosome
The presence of male external genitals

Testosterone

98

Hormones can influence the development of neurons by

Stimulating Programmed cell death
Stimulating hypertrophy
Stimulating the retention of neurons
All of the above

Stimulating the retention of neurons

99

When rising hormone levels in an adult stimulate gender role related behaviors they are exerting

an organizational effect
negative feedback
an activational effect
positive feedback

an activational effect

100

Which of the following can occur in humans?

Men with remnants of an embryonic uterus
Women with remnants of the embryonic male internal tract
A hermaphrodite with both ovarian and testicular tissue
All of the above

All of the above

101

Leydig Cells secrete

Testosterone
Inhibin
Mullerian inhibiting hormone
All of the above

Testosterone

102

Sertoli Cells

regulate spermatogenesis
produce testicular luminal fluid
convert testosterone into estrogen
all of the above

All of the above

103

Testosterone production is stimulated by

Hyperprolactinemia (elevated Prolactin Levels)
LH
FSH
Elevated levels of Cortisol

LH

104

Sertoli cell function is stimulated by

FSH
Insulin like Growth Factors
Testosterone
All of the above

FSH

105

Which of the following is necessary for spermatogenesis?

FSH
Androgen binding protein
Testosterone
All of the above

All of the above

106

Which of the following stimulates Testosterone Synthesis

Estrogen
Normal levels of Prolactin
Testicular GnRH
Testosterone

Normal levels of Prolactin

107

Which of the following inhibits the secretion of FSH?

Testosterone
Hypothalamic GnRH
Inhibin
Follicle Stimulating Hormone

Inhibin

108

Which of the following exerts negative feedback control on LH Secretion?

Testosterone
Hypothalamic GnRH
Inhibin
Follicle Stimulating Hormone

Testosterone

109

Which of the following stimulates the secretion of FSH and LH?

Hypothalamic GnRH
Melatonin
Testicular GnRH
Prolactin

Hypothalamic GnRH

110

Testosterone

Is a steroid hormone and acts by stimulating G proteins
Is a steroid hormone and acts by altering gene expression
Is a protein hormone and acts by altering gene expression
Is a protein hormone and acts by stimulating G Proteins

Is a steroid hormone and acts by stimulating G proteins

111

Which of the following is found outside of the blood-testis barrier?

Spermatids
Spermatocytes
Sperm
Spermatogonia

Spermatogonia

112

Which of the following go through meiosis?

Spermatids
Spermatocytes
Sperm
Spermatogonia

Spermatocytes

113

During Spermiogenesis

Sperm enlarge
DNA is packed into an inactive state
The mitotic divisions of spermatogenesis occur
One spermatid produces 4 sperm

One spermatid produces 4 sperm

114

The Germ cell inside a developing follicle is

An oogonia
Completing meiosis
A pritmary oocyte arrested at prophase of meiosis I
Metabolically Inactive

A pritmary oocyte arrested at prophase of meiosis I

115

FSH is required for the development of

A primordial Follicle
A Secondary follicle
A primary follicle
All of the above

A Secondary follicle

116

Theca Interna Cells are stimulated by

FSH
Inhibin
LH
GnRH

LH

117

Which of the following will cause atresia?

Extra FSH
Excess Androgen
Excess Estrogen
Too high a ratio of FSH:LH

Excess Androgen

118

Estrogens Stimulate

Mitotic Division of granulose cells
The development of estrogen receptors in granulose cells
The development of FSH receptors in granulose cells
All of the above

All of the above

119

Theca Internal Cells Secrete

Inhibin
Progesterone
Androgens
Follicular Fluid

Androgens

120

Granulosa Cells produce

Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone
Insulin like growth factors
Inhibin
All of the above

Inhibin

121

The preovulatory surge of LH stimulated by positive feedback action of

Estrogen
Prolactin
Androgen
Inhibin

Estrogen

122

Which of the following is not caused by the preovulatory surge of LH?

Ovulation
Menstruation
The formation of the corpus luteum
Progesterone Secretion

Menstruation

123

Which of the following cause the follicle wall to break down at ovulation?

Prostaglandins F2 Alpha
Histamine
Bradykinin
All of the above

All of the above

124

The molecules that cause ovulation and release the oocyte from inhibition are produced by the

Granulosa Cells
Oocyte
Theca Interna Cells
Basement membrane of the follicle

Granulosa Cells

125

The corpus luteum forms from

Atretic follicles
The granulose and theca cells of the ovulated follicle
Oocytes that fail to ovulate
Interstial tissue of the ovary

The granulose and theca cells of the ovulated follicle

126

The corpus luteum produces

Progesterone
Relaxin
Estrogen
All of the above

All of the above

127

During a Human Female reproductive cycle when pregnancy does not occur the corpus luteum survives

For 12 days
For one year
For one month
For 3 days

For 12 days

128

Luteolysis occurs due to

Inadequate FSH
A lack of LH or hCG
Too much progesterone
Too much inhibin

A lack of LH or hCG

129

During the follicular phase

Estrogen levels rise steadily
Progesterone levels peak in the middle and then fall
Progesterone is the major hormone produced
The uterus is in the decretory phase

Estrogen levels rise steadily

130

The secretion of GnRH can be inhibited by

Hyper Prolactinemia
Very low levels of Meltonin
Preovulatory levels of estrogen
Good nutrition

Preovulatory levels of estrogen

131

During the luteal phase, the positive feedback action on LH secretion is blocked by

Inhibin
GABA
Progesterone
FSH

FSH

132

Estrogen Stimulates Growth of

Uterine Glandular ducts
The vaginal epithelium
Mammary glandular ducts
All of the above

All of the above

133

Milk synthesis is stimulated by

Prolactin
Estrogen
Oxytocin
Progesterone

Prolactin

134

Which of the following does not stimulate uterine contractions?

Prostaglandins F2 Alpha
Oxytocin
Estrogen
Progesterone

Progesterone

135

Relaxin

Inhibits sperm maturation
Stimulates the softening of the cervix
Stimulates uterine contractions
Is produced by the uterus

Stimulates the softening of the cervix

136

When the fetal adrenal secretes rising levels of Cortisol

The onset of parturition is delayed
The progesterone : Estrogen ratio in the uterus rises
Falling levels of uterine progesterone allow uterine myometrium gap junctions to develop
Fetal Lung maturation is inhibited

Falling levels of uterine progesterone allow uterine myometrium gap junctions to develop

137

The placenta produces all known hormone except for

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin
A thyrotrophic hormone
Androgens
A Placental Prolactin

A thyrotrophic hormone

138

The secretion of hormones can be influenced by

Neurotransmitters
Sensory information from the spinal cord
Environmental Stimuli
All of the above

All of the above

139

Matching

A. Parathormone
B. Calcitriol
C. Vitamin D3
D. Parathormone Related Peptide E. Calcitonin

1. Lowers calcium levels in blood
2. Directly stimulates the uptake of calcium from the digestive tract.
3. Stimulates the excretion of calcium in urine
4. Stimulates the excretion of phosphate in urine
5. Stimulates synthesis of the protein matrix of bone.
6. Inhibits osteoclast activity.
7. estrogen stimulates the synthesis of it
8. Stimulates the uptake of calcium into mammary glands for milk production
9. Stimulates calcitriol synthesis
10. Secretion is directly stimulated by hypocalcemia
11. Secretion is directly stimulated by hypercalcemia
12. Is the precursor for calcitriol
13. Is produced by the kidney
14. Is produced by the thyroid gland
15. A tumor that produces this hormone causes overactivity of osteoclasts, kidney stones, and digestive tract upset
16. Acts in negative feedback to suppress parathormone secretion
17. Inhibits food intake

1. Calcitonin
2. Calcitriol
3. Calcitonin
4. PTH
5. Calcitonin
6. Calcitonin
7. Calcitriol
8. PRP
9. PTH
10. PTH
11. Calcitonin
12. V D3
13. Calcitriol
14. Calcitonin
15. PTH
16. Calcitriol
17. Calcitonin

140

Which of the following stimulates testosterone synthesis and secretion?

lutenizing hormone
Hyper prolactinemia
Testicular gonadotrophin releasing hormone
Follicle stimulating hormone

LH

141

Which of the following inhibits Follicle Stimulating Hormone Secretion?

Luteinizing hormone
Inhibin
Hypothalamic Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone
Follicle Stimulating Hormone

Inhibin

142

Leydig Cells

Produce testicular luminal fluid – sertoli cells
Produce androgen binding protein- sertoli cells
Produce progesterone
Produce testosterone

Produce testosterone

143

Sertoli cells do not

produce testosterone - leydig
produce inhibin
regulate sperm maturation
convert testosterone into estrogen

produce testosterone - leydig

144

The prostaglandins found in seminal fluid are produced by the

Prostrate
Epididymus
Testis
Seminal vesicles – prostaglandins, fructose, fibrinogen

Seminal vesicles – prostaglandins, fructose, fibrinogen

145

Embryonic development of the testis requires

the presence of the testis determining gene
the presence of testosterone
the absence of estrogen
all of the above

All of the above

146

Embryonic development of the uterus and oviduct requires

the presence of a functioning ovary
the absence of Mullerian Inhibing Hormone
the absence of testosterone
2 X chromosomes

the absence of Mullerian Inhibing Hormone

147

In the male LH secretion is suppressed by

Inhibin
FSH
Testosterone
Normal levels of Prolactin

Testosterone

148

In Castrated male blood levels of

LH will be absent
LH will be elevated
LH will be lower then normal
Inhibin will be elevated

LH will be elevated

149

Which of the following can increase the secretion of testosterone?

normal levels of prolactin
low social status
estrogen
high levels of cortisol

normal levels of prolactin

150

Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone stimulates the secretion of

LH
FSH
FSH and LH
Prolactin

FSH and LH

151

Which of the following hormones is not involved in sperm production?

FSH
Relaxin
Testosterone
Estrogen

Relaxin

152

Granulosa Cells

Regulate maturation of the oocyte
Produce follicular fluid
Produce progesterone
All of the above

All of the above

153

Theca Internal Cells Produce

Inhibin- Granulose Cells
Luteinizing hormone- Ant Pit
Androgens- estrogen
All of the above

Androgens- estrogen

154

The dominant follicle is the

Follicle that causes atresia of the other follicles by secreting inhibin
One that produces the least estrogen - Increase Amts of Estrogen
One that produces the most androgen
The one with the fewest FSH receptors – Increase FSH Receptors

Follicle that causes atresia of the other follicles by secreting inhibin

155

Atresia of follicles occurs if

they do not get FSH supports when they need it
there are multiple large peaks of LH during the follicular phase
the androgen to estrogen ratio in the follicular fluid is too high
all of the above

All of the above

156

Which of the following is not produced by granulose cells?

Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone
Androgen- theca interna
Inhibin
Progesterone

Androgen- theca interna

157

Which of the following can mature in any endocrine environment?

A primordial follicle
A secondary follicle
A tertiary follicle
All of the above

All of the above

158

Theca Internal Cells are stimulated by

GnRH
Inhibin
FSH
LH – only

LH- only

159

Estrogens Stimulate

The synthesis of androgens by granulose cells
The synthesis of estrogen by granulose cells
The loss of FSH receptors in granulose cells
The loss of LH receptors from granulose cells

The synthesis of androgens by granulose cells

160

Atresia is

the release of the egg from the follicle
the formation of a corpus luteum
the programmed death of a follicle
the growth of the oocyte

the programmed death of a follicle

161

If extra FSH is given to a woman during the follicular phase

it will rescue follicles from atresia
it will cause atresia
it will block ovulation
it will inhibit the secretion of Inhibin

it will rescue follicles from atresia

162

The molecules that cause ovulation and release the oocyte from inhibition are produced by the

Theca Internal cells
Oocyte
Granulose cells

Granulose cells

163

Theca interna cells secrete

inhibin
androgens – estrogen
progesterone
follicular fluid

androgens- estrogen

164

The preovulatory surge of LH is stimulated by positive feedback action of

estrogen
prolactin
androgen
inhibin

estrogen

165

The human corpus luteum does not produce

human chorionic gonadotrophin- trophoblast cells in the embryo
estrogen
relaxin
inhibin

human chorionic gonadotrophin- trophoblast cells in the embryo

166

Luteolysis occurs due to

Inadequate FSH
Too little progesterone
A lack of LH or hCG
Inadequate inhibin levels

A lack of LH or hCG

167

Which of the following is not caused by the preovulatory surge of LH?

Ovulation
Menstruation
Completeion of the first meiotic division of the oocyte
Progesterone secretion

Menstruation

168

During the luteal phase, the positive feedback action of LH secretion is blocked by

Inhibin
GnRH
Estrogen
Progesterone

Inhibin

169

The secretion of GnRH can be inhibited by

Hyper Prolactinemia
Hypo Prolactinemia
Preovulatory levels of estrogen
Good Nutrition

Hyper Prolactinemia

170

Estrogen does not stimulate

growth of uterine glandular ducts
growth of the baginal epithelium
growth of mammary glandular ducts
uterine glandular secretion- progesterone

uterine glandular secretion- progesterone

171

The acrosome reaction causes

The fertilization of an egg by a sperm
The digestion of the zona ellucid
Capacitation of sperm
Transport of sperm from the vagina to the oviduct

Transport of sperm from the vagina to the oviduct

172

Sperm can survive the longest in

the vagina
the uterus
estrogen stimulated cervical mucous- follicular phase
progesterone stimulated cervical mucous

estrogen stimulated cervical mucous- follicular phase

173

Milk synthesis is stimulated by

prolactin
progesterone
estrogen
all of the above

prolactin

174

The release of milk from the mammary glands is dependent on

prolactin
oxytocin
estrogen
progesterone

oxytocin

175

Which of the following inhibits uterine contractions?

Prostaglandins F2 Alpha
Oxytocin
Progesterone (suppresses coordinated uterine contractions)
Estrogen

Progesterone (suppresses coordinated uterine contractions)

176

Rising fetal cortisol production

prepares the fetus to survive outside of the uterus
inhibits uterine contractions
stimulates local levels of uterine progesterone
inhibits the development of gap junctions between the uterine myometrial cells

prepares the fetus to survive outside of the uterus

177

The production of DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) by the fetal adrenal is necessary for the placenta to produce

progesterone
cholesterol
estrogen
human chorionic gondadotrophin

Estrogen

178

An enlarged endocrine organ could be an indication of

excessive hormone production by the organ
inadequate hormone production by the organ
a tumor that secretes the trophic hormone for the organ
all of the above

a tumor that secretes the trophic hormone for the organ

179

A person who is very sensitive to a hormone is likely to have

elevated blood levels of the hormone
high levels of receptors for the hormone
a mutated hormone receptor that does not work
the ability to destroy the hormone very rapidly

high levels of receptors for the hormone

180

A hypoendocrine condition of hormone “a” could be the result of

An “A” Hormone producing tumor
Too many receptors for the hormone “A”
The presence of hormones that synergize with hormone “A”
The absence of a precursor for hormone “A”

An “A” Hormone producing tumor ???

181

The liver contributes to endocrine balance by

producing preprohormones
metabolizing hormones
producing carrier proteins for hormones
all of the above

producing carrier proteins for hormones

182

The hypothalamus produces

Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones
Trophic hormones
Steroid Hormones
All of the above

Trophic hormones

183

. Which of the following is least likely to be a cause of osteoporosis?
A. excessive thinness
B. inadequate protein in the diet
C. lack of exercise
D. excessive calcitonin production

D. Excessive calcitonin production

184

Which of the following increases the synthesis of calcitonin?
A. Parathyroid hormone
B. Calcitriol
C. Estrogen
D. Starvation

C. Estrogen

185

Which of the following problems is a person suffering from multiple breaks in their bones, kidney stones, mental depression and digestive tract upset, most likely to have?
A. Hyperparathyroidism
B. Osteomalacia
C. Rickets
D. Osteoporosis

A. Hyperparathyroidism

186

Calcitriol is synthesized in the
A. Liver
B. kidney
C. Thyroid
D. Parathyroid

B. Kidney

187

Calcitonin is synthesized in the
A. Liver
B. kidney
C. thyroid
D. parathyroid

C. Thyroid

188

he production of hormone receptors and enzymes needed to synthesize testosterone is stimulated by
A. normal male levels of prolactin
B. elevated male levels of prolactin
C. absence of prolactin in males
D. follicle stimulating hormone

A. Normal male levels of prolactin

189

Which of the following is not an action of Testicular sertoli cells?
A. regulation of spermatogenesis
B. synthesis and secretion of inhibin
C. synthesis and secretion of testosterone D. production of testicular luminal fluid

C. Synthesis and secretion of testosterone

190

Which of the following exerts negative feedback on FSH secretion in the male?
A. Testosterone
B. Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone
C. Inhibin
D. Luteinizing Hormone

C. Inhibin

191

Which of the following molecules stimulates spermatogenesis?
A. FSH
B. Testosterone
C. Insulin like Growth Factors
D. All of the these

D. All of these

192

Sperm maturation occurs in the
A. Epididymus
B. prostate
C. seminal vesicles
D. all of these

A. Epididymus

193

The prostaglandins found in seminal fluid are produced in the
A. Testes
B. prostate
C. seminal vesicles
D. Epididymus

C. Seminal Vesicles

194

Which of the following is not an action of testoterone?
A. causes the initial differentiation of the embryonic gonad into a testis
B. stimulates libido in males
C. stimulates the differentiation of the male external genitals
D. influences the differentiation of the sexually dimorphic nuclei in the brain

A- Causes the initial differentiation of embryonic gonad into a testis

195

29. Production of progesterone by the ovary is primarily the function of
A. primordial follicles
B. revelatory follicles
C. corpora lutem
D. oocytes

C- Corpora luteum

196

30. The fate of the majority of human ovarian follicles is
A. development to the revelatory stage
B. ovulation
C. ferilization
D. atresia

A- development to the revelatory stage

197

31. Which of the following can cause ovarian follicular atresia?
A. excessive estrogen
B. excessive Luteinizing hormone
C. excessive FSH
D. All of these

D- All of these

198

The primary oocytes complete the 1st meiotic division
A. before birth
B. at puberty
C. at ovulation
D. At fertilization

C- At ovulation

199

Which of the following hormones prevents the secretion of GnRH by the cycle center of the hypothalamus during the ovarian luteal phase? A. Testosterone
B. Progesterone
C. Estrogen
D. Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone

B- Progesterone

200

What saves the corpus luteum from going through luteolysis in a fertile reproductive cycle?
A. HCG
B. Estrogen
C. Progesterone
D. FSH

A. HCG

201

What hormone is secreted by the dominant revelatory follicle that causes atresia of the other revelatory follicles?
A. Prolactin
B. Oxytocin
C. Inhibin
D. Estrogen

C- Inhibin

202

During the follicular phase, estrogen stimulates
A. granulosa cells to develop more FSH receptors
B. granulosa cells to produce more estrogen C. granulosa cells to go through mitosis
D. All of the above

D- All of the above

203

Which of the following is a function of ovarian Granulosa cells?
A. produces inhibitors of oocyte maturation B. produces molecules necessary for ovulation of the oocyte
C. produces many molecules found in follicular fluid
D. All of the above

D- All of the above

204

Which of the following is a function of ovarian theca Interna cells?
A. regulates oocyte maturation
B. produces and secretes estrogens into blood
C. produces inhibin
D. forms the blood/follicle barrier

B. Produces and secretes estrogens into blood

205

Progesterone stimulates
A. formation of gap junctions b/w cells of the uterine myometrium
B. secretory activity of the endometrial glands C. production of milk
D. contraction of the uterine myometrium

A- formation of gap junction b/w cells of the uterine myometrium

206

Ovulation occurs
A. at the end of the follicular phase
B. At the middle of the luteal phase
C. during menstruation
D. in the middle of the follicular phase

A- at the end of the follicular phase

207

Which of the following hormones only functions in the female and has no functions in the male? A. Relaxin
B. Prolactin
C. Oxytoncin
D. All of these
E. None of these

E- none of these

208

Which of the following hormones stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum during a natural reproductive cycle?
A. Follicle Stimulating Hormone
B. Luteinizing Hormone
C. HCG
D. Estrogen

C- HCG

209

The human corpus luteum produces
A. Progesterone
B. Inhibin
C. Relaxin
D. All of these

D- All of these

210

Which of the following hormones competes with Aldosterone for its receptors in the kidney and changes in its levels influences water retention prior to menstruation?
A. Testosterone
B. Estrogen
C. Progesterone
D. Relaxin

C- Progesterone

211

Estrogen stimulates
A. contactions of the fimbria of the oviduct of the of oxidation
B. production of cervical menicus that prolongs sperm survival
C. Ke of vaginal epithelium that produces the femal reproductive tract from infections and damage
D. All of the above

D- All of the above

212

Which of the following hormones is not produced by the placenta?
A. HCG
B. hormones with similar actions to the hypothalamic and pituitary hormones
C. Testosterone
D. Progesterone

D- Progesterone

213

During the 1st trimester of pregnancy, the raising levels of progesterone that are observed in the mother’s blood are produced by the
A. Placenta
B. mother’s corpus luteum
C. fetal adrenal glands
D. inner cell mass of the embryo

B- Mother's corpus luteum

214

The fetal adrenal glands are important for A. production of androgens during pregnancy B. secretion of rising levels of cortisol at the end of pregnancy that activates p
C. secretion of risising levels of cortisol that stimulates nat
D. all of the above

D- All of the above

215

The highest levels of HCG in maternal blood are observed during
A. 1st trimester
B. 2nd trimester
C. 3rd trimester
D. all of pregnancy equally

A- First trimester

216

Which of the following hormones causees the softening of the uterine cervical connective tissue allowing it to stretch at partuirition? A. Progesterone
B. Relaxin
C. Oxytocin
D. Prolactin

B- Relaxin

217

Which of the following hormones inhibits uterine contaction?
A. progesterone
B. Estrogen
C. Oxytocin
D. Prostagladins F2 alpha

A- Progesterone

218

Which of the following hormones is incorrectly matched with its action on mammary glands? A. Prolactin-stimulates milk synthesis
B. Oxytocin-stimulates milk synthese
C. Oxytocin-stimulates the release of milk D. Progesterone-inhibit’s the activation of enzymes involved in milk synthesis

C- Oxytocin stimulates milk synthesis

219

Which of the following is an effect of lactation on the mother?
A. hastens the return of ovulatory cycles
B. stimulates uterine contractions and returns the uterus to a smaller size faster
C. increases the mother’s ability to store and retain fat
D. inhibits Endorphin release and causes the “ baby blues” and post partum depression

B- stimulates uterine contractions and returns the uterus to a smaller size faster