Hem & Onc - Pharm (Individual Cancer Drugs & Common Chemotoxicities) Flashcards Preview

FA - Hematology and Oncology > Hem & Onc - Pharm (Individual Cancer Drugs & Common Chemotoxicities) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hem & Onc - Pharm (Individual Cancer Drugs & Common Chemotoxicities) Deck (49):
1

What drug has the same mechanism of Cisplatin? What is their mechanism?

Carboplatin; Cross-link DNA

2

For what cancers are cisplatin and/or carboplatin used clinically?

(1) Testicular (2) Bladder (3) Ovary (4) Lung (carcinomas)

3

What are the toxicities associated with Cisplatin/carboplatin?

(1) Nephrotoxicity (2) Acoustic nerve damage

4

What prevents the nephrotoxicity effect of cisplatin/carboplatin?

Amifostine (free radical scavenger) & chloride diuresis

5

What drug has the same mechanism as Etoposide? What is their mechanism?

Teniposide; Inhibit topoisomerase II --> decreased DNA degradation; Think: " eTOPOside inhibits TOPOisomerase II"

6

For what 3 major cancers are etoposide and/or teniposide used clinically?

(1) Solid tumors (particularly testicular and small cell lung cancer) (2) Leukemias (3) Lymphomas

7

What are the toxicities associated with etoposide/teniposide?

(1) Myelosuppression (2) GI irritation (3) Alopecia

8

What is the mechanism of hydroxyurea?

Inhibits nucleotide reductase --> decreased DNA synthesis (S-phase specific)

9

For what is hydroxyurea used clinically?

(1) Melanoma (2) CML (3) Sickle cell disease (increase HbF)

10

What are the toxicities associated with hydroxyurea?

(1) Bone marrow suppression (2) GI upset

11

What is the name of another drug that functions similarly to Prednisone? What is their proposed mechanism?

Prednisolone; May trigger apoptosis, may even work on nondividing cells

12

For what are prednisone and/or prednisolone used clinically?

(1) Most commonly used glucocorticoid in cancer chemotherapy - Used in CLL, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (part of combination chemotherapy regimen) (2) Immunosuppressant (e.g., autoimmune diseases)

13

What are the toxicities associated with prednisolone and/or prednisone?

Cushing-like symtoms: weight gain, central obesity, muscle breakdown, cataracts, acne, osteoporosis, hypertension, peptic ulcers, hyperglycemia, psychosis

14

What is a drug that shares the same mechanism as Tamoxifen? What is their mechanism?

Raloxifene; SERMs - receptor antagonists in breast and agonists in bone. Block binding of estrogen to estrogen receptor-positive cells

15

For what are Tamoxifen and/or Raloxifene used clinically?

(1) Breast cancer treatment (tamoxifen only) and prevention (2) Raloxifene also useful to prevent osteoporosis

16

What are the toxicities associated with Tamoxifen versus Raloxifene?

TAMOXIFEN - partial agonist in endometrium, which increases risk of endometrial cancer; "hot flashes"; RALOXIFENE - no increase in endometrial carcinoma because it is an endometrial antagonist

17

What is the brand name of Trastuzumab? What is its mechanism?

Herceptin; Monoclonal antibody against HER-2 (c-erbB2), a tyrosine kinase. Helps kill breast cancer cells that overexpress HER-2, through inhibition of HER2-initiated cellular signaling and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity

18

For what is Trastuzumab (Herceptin) used clinically?

HER 2-positive breast cancer and gastric cancer; Think: "her-2 tras2zumab"

19

What is the toxicity associated with Trastuzumab (Herceptin)?

Cardiotoxicity; Think: "HEARTceptin damages the HEART"

20

What is the brand name for Imatinib? What is its mechanism?

Gleevec; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor of bcr-abl (Philadelphia chromosome fusion gene in CML) and c-Kit (common in GI stromal tumors)

21

For what is Imatinib (Gleevec) used clinically?

(1) CML (2) GI stromal tumors

22

What is the toxicity/side effect associated with Imatinib (Gleevec)?

Fluid retention

23

What is the mechanism of Rituximab?

Monoclonal antibody against CD20, which is found on most B-cell neoplasms

24

What are 3 conditions for which Rituximab is clinically used?

(1) Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (2) Rheumatoid arthritis (with methotrexate) (3) ITP

25

What drugs are used in combination for rheumatoid arthritis?

Methotrexate & Rituximab

26

What is the mechanism of Vemurafenib?

Small molecule inhibitor of forms of B-Raf kinase with V600E mutation

27

For what is Vemurfenib used clinically?

Metastatic melanoma

28

What is the mechanism of Bevacizumab?

Monoclonal antibody against VEGF = inhibits angiogenesis

29

For what is Bevacizumab used clinically?

Solid tumors (colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma)

30

Draw the "chemo-tox man," labeling common chemotoxicities and the drugs associated with each of them.

See pg. 375 in First Aid for drawing

31

What drug(s) commonly cause(s) acoustic nerve damage? What other toxicity does/do it/they cause?

Cisplatin/Carboplatin; Nephrotoxicity

32

What drug(s) commonly cause(s) peripheral neuropathy?

Vincristine

33

What drug(s) commonly cause(s) pulmonary fibrosis?

Bleomycin & Busulfan

34

What drug(s) commonly cause(s) cardiotoxicity?

Doxorubicin & Trastuzumab

35

What drug(s) commonly cause(s) nephrotoxicity? What other toxicity does/do it/they cause?

Cisplatin/Carboplatin; Acoustic nerve damage

36

What drug(s) commonly cause(s) hemorrhagic cystitis?

Cyclophosphamide

37

What drug(s) commonly cause(s) myelosuppression?

5-FU, 5-MP, & Methotrexate

38

What toxicity(-ies) do cisplatin/carboplatin commonly cause?

(1) Acoustic nerve damage (2) Nephrotoxicity

39

What toxicity(-ies) does vincristine commonly cause?

Peripheral neuropathy

40

What toxicity(-ies) do bleomycin & busulfan commonly cause?

Pulmonary fibrosis

41

What toxicity(-ies) do doxorubicin & trastuzumab commonly cause?

Cardiotoxicity

42

What toxicity(-ies) does cyclophosphamide commonly cause?

Hemorrhagic cystitis

43

What toxicity(-ies) do 5-FU and 6-MP commonly cause? What other drug commonly causes this as well?

Myelosuppression; Methotrexate

44

What is the mechanism of Irinotecan? What is another drug that shares this mechanism?

Inhibit topoisomerase I and prevent DNA unwinding and replication

45

What is the clinical use for Irinotecan?

Colon cancer (irinotecan)

46

What are 2 clinical uses for Topotecan?

Ovarian and small cell lung cancers (topotecam)

47

What 2 toxicities are associated with Irinotecan and Topotecan?

(1) Severe myelosuppression (2) Diarrhea

48

What is the toxicity associated with Rituximab?

Increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

49

What toxicity(-ies) is (are) associated with Bevacizumab?

Hemorrhage and impaired wound healing