Quizzies (Atypical Cervical Vertebrae: C1/Atlas) Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy Exam 2 > Quizzies (Atypical Cervical Vertebrae: C1/Atlas) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quizzies (Atypical Cervical Vertebrae: C1/Atlas) Deck (42):
0

What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?

Atlas

1

What features are lacking at C1?

Vertebral body, pedicle, a spinous process, and the intervertebral disc

2

What is thought to represent the pedicle at C1?

The anterior arch

3

What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?

Longus colli

4

What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1?

The anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanto-occipital, and anterior atlanto-axial ligaments

5

What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?

The fovea dentis

6

What joint classifications are observed on the anterior arch of C1?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint and synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint

7

What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?

They are elliptical, closer together in front, and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces

8

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?

Backward, upward, medial (BUM)

9

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis?

Synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint

10

What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1?

Asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened

11

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?

Backward, medial and downward (BMD)

12

What is the name of the rounded elevation on the medial aspect of the lateral mass of C1?

Tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament

13

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?

Levator scapula, splenius cervicis, and rectus capitus anterior

14

What part of C1 represents the spinous process?

Posterior tubercle of the posterior arch

15

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?

Males: about fifty millimeters; females: about thirty-seven millimeters

16

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?

Rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

17

What superior surface modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present?

Groove/sulcus for the vertebral artery and arcuate rim

18

What attaches to the arcuate rim of C1?

The posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

19

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?

About age 7 years old

20

Based on the amount of ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament what structures will form?

An incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus

21

What forms the types of ponticulus posticus?

Ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

22

What are the attachment sites of the ponticulus posticus?

It is attached to the arcuate rim of the posterior arch of atlas and to the superior articular process of the lateral mass of atlas

23

What other name may be used to identify a ponticulus posticus?

Kimmerle's anomaly

24

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?

Arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

25

Ponticulus posticus has been observed in what ethnic populations?

All ethnic populations studied thus far

26

What is the gender bias now associated with ponticulus posticus?

Female

27

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?

Costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

28

What osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1?

Anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar

29

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?

Rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior, and intertransversarii muscles

30

What suboccipital muscles are known to have facial projections attaching to the spinal dura?

Rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior

31

What are the connections between suboccipital muscles and the spinal dural called?

Myodural bridges

32

What are the lateral bridges of atlas connected to?

The lateral mass and the transverse process of atlas

33

What opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed?

The retrotransverse foramen

34

What are the possible contents of the retrotransverse foramen?

The vertebral artery, a branch from the suboccipital nerve, and veins communicating with the venous sinuses of the neck

35

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is most numerous?

Ponticulus posticus

36

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is only observed in humans?

Lateral bridges

37

What is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1?

Males: 78 millimeters and females: 72 millimeters

38

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender?

A little over 30 millimeters for both males and females

39

What joint classifications are observed at C1?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint, synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint, synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint, and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

40

How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

Five

41

What synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

Two superior articular facets, two inferior articular facets, and the fovea dentis