Sacrum & Coccyx Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy Exam 2 > Sacrum & Coccyx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sacrum & Coccyx Deck (44):
0

What is a ganglion impair?

A midline sympathetic ganglion

1

What is the coccygeal glomus or coccygeal body?

An enlarged encapsulated arteriovenous anastomosis located near the last segment of coccyx

2

What is the sacral promontory?

The bulging anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1

3

How many synovial joints are typically present at sacrum?

Four

4

What joint classifications are typically present at sacrum?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

5

What forms the posterior boundary for the fifth sacral spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

Sacral cornu, coccygeal cornu, superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament, and intercornual ligament

6

What forms the anterior boundary for the fifth sacral spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

Vertebral body S5, vertebral body Co1, deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament, and intervertebral disc

7

What is the homolog for the posterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

Deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

8

What is the homolog for the anterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

Anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

9

What is the homolog for the ligamentum flavum at S5?

Superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

10

What forms the inferior boundary for the spinal canal?

The union of the superficial posterior and deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments

11

What ligament is formed by the union of the superficial posterior sacrococcygeal and the deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments at Co1?

The posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

12

What ligament divides the sciatic foramen into the greater and lesser sciatic foramen?

Sacrospinous ligament

13

Which ligament represents a thickening of the fibrous capsule of the sacroiliac joint?

Anterior sacroiliac ligament

14

Which ligament is the strongest of the sacroiliac ligaments and is penetrated by dorsal rami of the sacral spinal nerves?

Interosseous sacroiliac ligament

15

Which ligament will attach the intermediate sacral crest of S1, lateral sacral crest of S2 to the posterior superior iliac spine?

Short posterior sacroiliac ligament

16

Which ligament attaches the lateral sacral crest of S3 and S4 to the posterior superior iliac spine?

Long posterior sacroiliac ligament

17

What is the homolog for the inferior articular process and facet at S5?

Sacral cornu

18

What is the homolog for the superior articular process and facet at Co1?

Coccygeal cornu

19

What is the homolog for the capsular ligament at S5?

Intercornual ligament

20

What is the number of coccygeal somites?

Ten

21

What is the typical number of segments which unite to form the adult coccyx?

4 segments

22

When is ossification of coccyx completed?

About age 30

23

What is the direction of fusion of coccygeal segments?

From caudal to cranial, the last segments to fuse together are Co1 and Co2

24

What is the direction of the coccygeal curve?

Posterior (kyphotic)

25

What is the major motion and range of motion for coccyx?

Flexion-extension, 5-20 degrees

26

How many coccygeal nerves are present in the fetus?

Typically 5 pairs of coccygeal nerves are present

27

How many coccygeal nerves are present in the adult?

Typically only one pair of coccygeal nerves remain in the adult

28

What forms the coccygeal nerve plexus?

S4, S5, and Co1 nerves

29

Superior articular facets of which vertebrae will be oriented backward, upward, and medial?

C1, C3-C7, L1-L5, S1

30

Superior articular facets of which vertebrae are oriented back, up, medial, and concave?

C1, L1-L5, S1

31

Superior articular facets of which segments will be oriented backward, upward, and lateral?

C2, T1-T12

32

Inferior articular facets of which segments will be oriented backward, medial, and downward?

C1

33

Inferior articular facets of which segments will be oriented forward, lateral, and downward?

C2-C6, T12, L1-L5

34

Inferior articular facets of which segments are oriented forward, lateral, downward and convex?

T12, L1-L5

35

Inferior articular facets of which segments will be oriented forward,medial, and downward?

C7, T1-T11

36

Which segment has the only inferior articular facet to face backward?

C1

37

What directions will all superior articular facets face?

Backward and upward

38

Which segments will have facets that are specifically shaped as "concave"?

C1, L1-L5, S1 superior articular facets

39

Which segments will have facets that are specifically shaped as "convex"?

T12, L1-L5 inferior articular facets

40

Which segments will have superior articular facets that are oriented medial or inward?

C1, C3-C7, L1-L5, S1

41

Which segments will have superior articular facets that are oriented lateral or outward?

C2, T1-T12

42

Which segments will have inferior articular facets that are oriented lateral or outward?

C2-C6, T12, L1-L5

43

Which segments will have inferior articular facets that are oriented medial or inward?

C1, C7, T1-T11