What stains can one use to stain nuclei and Nissl substances of neurones?
Neutral red stain
What stains could one use to stain axons?
Where is grey matter found in the spinal cord and in the cerebral cortex?
In Spinal cord - centrally, 'H' shaped
In cerebral cortex - peripherally
What are reflex arcs?
neural pathway controlling an action reflex e.g. knee jerk reflex
Annotate the ventricular system of the brain
Annotate the lobes of the cerebrum
Annotate the major gyri and sulci
Annotate the regional blood supply of the brain
How many pairs of cranial and spinal nerves are there?
Cranial - 12 pairs
spinal - 31 pairs
What membranes envelop the CNS and the PNS?
CNS - meninges
PNS - endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium
What are the 2 cell types located in the CNS?
Where does the spinal cord show enlargement and why?
At cervical and lumbar levels due to brachial plexus and lumbar plexus
What are the 3 sutures of the skull?
Coronal, saggital, lambdoid
What is the name of:
a) groove of brain
b) a major groove of brain
c) Elevations of brain?
How are the 2 hemispheres of the brain connected?
by corpus callosum and commissures
What are the 3 primary vesicles of the brain?
forebrain - prosencephalon
midbrain - mesencephalon
hindbrain - rhombencephalon
What are the 5 secondary vesicles of the brain and what do they differentiate from?
- diencephalon - forebrain
- telencephalon - forebrain
- mesencephalon - midbrain
- metencephalon - hindbrain
- myelencephalon - hindbrain
What is the name of the saggitally running infolding found in the midline?
How does the tentorium cerebelli and the cerebral falx divide the cranial cavity?
Tentorium cerebelli - Supra-tentorial and Infra-tentorial compartments
Cerebral falx - Left and right halves
What is akinesia?
Muscular weakness and fatigue
what is apraxia?
Difficulty with motor planning
What is agnosia?
Inability to recognise objects w/o defective senes of smell or sight or memory loss
What is aphasia?
What is areflexia?
what is ataxia?
failure of muscle coordination
what is bradykinesia?
Slow execution of movement
what is dysphagia?
What is dysarthria?
Unclear articulation of speech
what is dysphonia?
difficulty speaking due to disorder of muscles or vocal cords
What is dysdiadochokinesis?
Impaired ability to perform rapid alternating movements
What is dyslexia?
What is hypertonia?
Increased tone of muscles
What is hyporeflexia?
What is paraplegia?
Impairment in motor or sensory function in lower limb
What is hemiplegia?
Paralysis on one side of the body
What is quadriplegia?
Paralysis of all limbs and torso
What is ophthalmoplegia?
Paralysis of muscles of eye
What is paresis?
Weakness of voluntary movement
What is hemiparesis?
Weakness of entire left or right side of body
What is palsy?
Paralysis accompanied by loss of feeling and weakness
What is chorea?
Involuntary movements of muscles esp shoulders, hip and face
What is spacticity?
Combo of paralysis, increased tendon reflex and hypertonia
Unidirectional. Velocity dependent
What is rigidity?
Partial or complete loss of muscle movement
Bidirectional. Not velocity dependent
What is anencephaly and how does it arise?
Absence of major part of brain due to failure of anterior end of neural tube to close
What condition arises if too much CSF accumulates in vesicles of brain? How is this condition treated?
Surgey places a shunt in the vesicles of the brain that redirects excess CSF into other body cavities
If blood forms between these layers, what is it called and what type of blood is it:
a) Skull and periosteal layer of dura
b) Meningeal layer of dura and arachnoid mater
c) within subarachnoid space
a) extradural haematoma - arterial
b) subdural hameatoma - venous
c) subarachnoid haematoma - arterial
What is CSF rhinorrhoea
fracture of frontal sinus or cribiform plate resulting in CSF leaking through the nose. Brain open to infection
Describe the composition of CSF compared to blood
Higher na, mg, and cl
Lower glucose, calcium, K, white cells