Spinal Anatomy CNS & related structures 23% part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Spinal Anatomy CNS & related structures 23% part 1 Deck (60):
1

What gives rise to all neurons and supporting cells?

Ectoderm

2

The vertebra develops from what?

sclerotome

3

What induces the ectoderm to form the neuroectoderm?

Notochord

4

What is the remnant of the neuroectoderm in the IVD?

nucleus pulposus

5

What forms the neural plate?

Ectoderm

6

What form s the neural groove?

Neural plate

7

What does the neural plate house?

spinal cord and brain vesicles

8

What are the brachial arches, PNS, Schwann cells, pia mater & arachnoid meninges, Sacral parasympathetics, and spinal (sensory) & autonomic ganglia developed from?

Neural crest

9

What are the mesencephalic nucleus of V, Melanocytes, bones & connective tissue of the head, DRG, Ganglia of C.N. V, VII, IX, and X, as well as the adrenal gland medula and suprarenals developed from?

Neural crest

10

Should you remember all that the neural crest develops into?

NO just remember the Neural plate!!!!!!

11

What is the pneumonic to remember what the neural plate develops into?

M.O.A.N.E.R.

12

Neural plate (brain cells) develop into what?

1. Macroglial cells a) Oligodendrocytes b) Astrocytes 2. Neurons CNS 3. Ependymal cells 4. Retinal cells

13

What forms the lining of the digestive tube & its associated structures?

Endoderm epithelium

14

What are the divisions of the primitive gut?

1. forgut 2. midgut 3. Hindgut 4. Allantois

15

What is the allantios division of the primitive gut?

urinary bladder, vagina, urethra, prostate & urethral glands

16

What do somite cell form?

1. sclerotome --> vertebral column 2. Myotome --> muscle & dermatome (skin)

17

What does the foramen ovale become?

fossa ovalis (b/w interatrial septum)

18

What does the ductus arteriosus become?

ligamentum arteriosum (bypasses lung pulmonary trunk to arch of aorta)

19

What does the ductus venosus become?

ligamentum venosum (bypasses sinusoids of fetal liver)

20

What does the umbilical vein become?

ligamentum teres (round ligament)

21

What do the umbilical arteries become?

medial umbilical ligamnets

22

What is the urachus a remnant of?

duct of allantois

23

What type of cells line the capillaries, alveoli, and glomeruli and function in filtration and diffusion?

a. CIliated Epithelium

b. Simple squamus

c. Ciliated pseudostratified columnar

d. Non-ciliated pseudostratified columnar

b. simple squamous

24

What type of cells line the brain vesicles, oviduct, and lungs and function to circulate, move, and sweep/clean? a. CIliated Epithelium b. Simple squamus c. Ciliated pseudostratified columnar d. Non-ciliated pseudostratified columnar

a.ciliated epithelium

25

What type of cells line the trachea and upper respiratory tract a. CIliated Epithelium b. Simple squamus c. Ciliated pseudostratified columnar d. Non-ciliated pseudostratified columnar

c. ciliated pseudostratified columnar

26

What type of cells line the vas deferens? a. CIliated Epithelium b. Simple squamus c. Ciliated pseudostratified columnar d. Non-ciliated pseudostratified columnar

d. Non-ciliated psuedostratified columnar

27

The mandibular branch of the V (V3) has what brachial arch?

1

28

The mandibular branch of the V (V3) has what skeletal structures associated with it?

Malleus (Meckel's cartilage) and incus (Quadrate cartilage)

29

The mandibular branch of the V (V3) has what muscles associated with it?

muscles of mastication and jaw-closing muscles

30

The facial (VII) nerve has what brachial arch associated with it?

2

31

What skeletal structures does the facial nerve have?

Stapes and styloid

32

What muscles are associated with the facial nerve?

Muscles of facial expression and jaw opening muscles stylohyoid and stapedius

33

What brachial arch is associated with the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)?

3

34

What skeletal structures are associated with the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)?

Cornu and hyoid

35

What muscles are associated with the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)?

Stylopharyngeus

36

What brachial arch is associated with the superior laryngeal of the vagus (X)?

4

37

What skeletal structures are associated with the superior laryngeal of the Vagus nerve (X)?

Thyroid and Cricoid cartilage

38

What muscles are associated with the superior laryngeal of the vagus nerve (X)?

Pharyngeal, cricothyroid, and levator palatine

39

What brachial arch is associated with the inferior laryngeal of the Vagus (X) (recurrent branch)?

6

40

What skeletal structures are associated with the inferior laryngeal of Vagus nerve (X)?

Arytenoid, Corniculate cartilage, and Cuneiform cartilage

41

what muscles are associated with the inferior laryngeal of Vagus nerve (X)?

Laryngeal

42

what CN is associated with the 5th brachial arch?

NONE

43

What is the "glue" that gives rise to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes?

glioblasts

44

What is the most numerous cell in the CNS and acts like connective tissue?

Astrocyte

45

What cell is part of the BBB and forms scar like tissue in injurys?

Astrocytes

46

What cells are numerous but not as much as astrocytes and form MYELIN around the CNS?

Oligodendrocytes

47

What ciliated cells line the CNS and make a "leaky" barrier between the CSF & CNS?

Ependymal cells

48

What are cells act as phagocytes in the CNS?

Microglia

49

What are microglia aka?

Gitterzellen cells

50

What cells make neurons?

Neuroblasts

51

What are the "connectors"  within the CNS?

internuncial neurons

52

What is the definition of commissural?

between two hemispheres

53

What is the definition of association?

different parts in the same hemisphere

54

what is the definition of PROJECTION?

lower centers to cerebral cortex

55

What structures are in the CNS?

Brain and Spinal cord

56

what are the most common type of neurons in the CNS?

a. Unipolar

b. Multipolar

c. Astrocytes

d. Oligodendrocyte

b. multipolar

57

What does the gray matter in the CNS consist of?

cell bodies and dendrites 

58

What does the white matter of the CNS consist of?

myelinated axons

59

What does the macroglia of the CNS consist of?

Astrocytes & Oligodendrocytes

60