Personality and Individual Differences > TASK 1 - PERSONALITY MEASUREMENTS > Flashcards


= S-data

- inferring individual’s personality on the basis of the responses; often mixture with self-ratings
--> ask the person series of questions about his/her actions, thoughts, feelings in various situations
- structured and objective: same questions and same answers for each person --> makes meaningful comparisons possible



= overall rating of individual’s level of a personality trait
- more direct indication of personality trait than only self-report


= I-data

= asking someone else (someone who knows individual well) for individual’s behaviour, thoughts, feelings


direct observation/behavioural measures
= B-data

= observe a person’s behaviour of interest directly to estimate level of the trait
= observing frequency or intensity with which individual performs behaviour
- naturalistic or laboratory setting


biodata/life outcome data
= L-data

= obtain some records of the person’s life which seem likely to be relevant to an individual’s personality (cell phone as sociability)


advantages of self-reports

- self knowledge: most informative and accurate information about oneself (introspective details)
- individual motivated to talk about themselves, identify with questions others do not
- straightforward
- inexpensive, quickness of a data collection administration --> large number of participants
- control most response biases


disadvantages of self-reports

- potential credibility issues
- not have enough self-awareness, self-knowledge
- response biases --> lack of credibility --> improve construction and instructions of questionnaire
1. social desirability
2. distorted self-perceptions --> self-enhancement
3. acquiescent responding (not considering what question is asking)
4. extreme responding (extreme ratings)
- structure of questions: potential problems (question wording, context)


what is self-knowledge?

= accurate self-perceptions about how one typically thinks, feels, behaves, and awareness of how those patterns are interpreted by others


does self-knowledge exist?

YES, but not perfectly
- self-perceptions are tethered to reality
- self-views are not completely out of synch with how they are seen by close one’s
- people have some insights into fact that others see them differently
--> we do not know our selves better than our closest friends/family
--> blind spots in self-knowledge


advantages of informant-reports

- slightly more objective than self
- unique perspective of overt behaviours and actions
- personality across situations
1) principle of aggregation = receiving number of judgments from many people --> increases reliability
2) interjudge agreement = comparing ratings made by different observers --> correlations between self and observer ratings
- practical + inexpensive
- complement to self-reports
--> view of personality from the outside (reputation) + from the inside from self-reports (identity)


disadvantages of informant-reports

- inclination to present good impression
- not know as well as individual knows him/herself (no access to internal motives, feelings, thoughts)
- difficulty of uncooperative informants, dishonest answers
- (same) response biases
- enhancement (diminishing) biases
- fundamental attribution error


advantages of behavioural measures

- directly observing behaviour of interest


disadvantages of behavioural measures

- less practical; effort, time and money intensive
- ethical issues (manipulating situations)
- laboratory setting: lack of representativeness of general actions, demand characteristics, social desirability, ethical concerns, only once (specific situational factors rather than dispositional factors)
- naturalistic setting: expensive and time-consuming


experience sampling (ES)

= people are asked several times a day to provide instant reports on momentary experiences
√ minimising time between occurrence and registration --> bypasses memory-related problems
√ relatively objective accounts of person’s daily experiences
x subjective recall of events (interpretation of events) + only recall what they are aware of


naturalistic observation

- immense amount of rich information about person’s life
- amount of data restricts to ideographic analysis
x intrusion into participants world --> influences behaviour


EAR (Electronically Activated Recorder)

= combines ES and naturalistic observation; captures short auditory snapshots over the day
- unique observer perspective
ES: economic advantage (only representative subset of everyday behaviour)
NO: nomothetic study of everyday social life + naturalistic data


advantages of EAR

- track people’s social lives
- non-involved observer’s point --> minimal measurement induced intrusions
- degree of stability across time and situations
- acoustic representation:
--> daily social environments: locations, social interactions, interaction styles
--> word choice: reveal psychological information about speaker; impression-management tool: negotiate different aspects of ourselves in different social settings (be more formal with your boss)


disadvantages of EAR

- time-consuming; work intensive
- ethical and legal issues: anonymity of bystanders


advantages of biodata

- objective indicators
- often represent important outcomes in a person’s life


disadvantages of biodata

- not always accurate indication of level of personality trait --> might be influenced by situational circumstances (fundamental attribution error)


what can our environments tell about us?

- information about their personalities, values, lifestyles
- interactionist theories: individuals select and create their social environments to match and reinforce their dispositions, attitudes and self-views


Brunswik's lens model

= elements in the environment can serve as a kind of lens through which observers indirectly perceive underlying constructs
- cue utilisation: link between observable cue and observer’s judgment
- cue validity: link between observable cue and occupant’s actual level of underlying construct
--> if both links intact: observer judgments should be the same as underlying construct (= observer accuracy)


self-directed identity claims

= symbolic statements made by occupants for their own benefit to reinforce their self-views
- make spaces their own
- cultural symbols, more personal meaning (can convey a message to an observer)


other-directed identity claims

- intentionally communicate attitudes/values with cultural symbols
- how they would like to be regarded


behavioural residues

= physical traces of activities conducted in the environment
- interior: conducted in the environment
- exterior: conducted outside environment


advantages of multiple method approaches

- demonstrate/improve construct validity
- increased accuracy
- richer data, more complete insight; address more aspects, answer more questions
- two perspectives (actor + observer) --> different but complementary data on same topic


disadvantages of multiple method approaches

- extra time, commitment, money, resources, training to implement


construct validity

= degree to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure
- convergent construct validity = constructs should be with theoretically related variables
- discriminant construct validity = constructs should be uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated concepts
--> the aim is to have the highest construct validity