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Flashcard maker: Vincent Yip

Decks in this class (18)

0331 Transmission between cells and the neuromuscular Junction
• There are chemical and electrical synapses for communication between a neuron and another cell • Chemical synaptic transmission is mediated by neurotransmitter: – often produced in the presynaptic terminal – released in the synaptic cleft in a Ca2+ dependant manor, and – binds to postsynaptic receptors – Degraded/reuptaken and recycled • NT receptor activation results in the opening of channels that depolarise or hyperpolarise the postsynaptic membrane, thereby altering its excitabil
31  cards
0407 neuro-excitation, inhibition and modulation
• Ionotropic receptors act fast; metabotropic receptors allow signal amplification but are slow • Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter • GABA is the major inhibitory transmitter • Acetylcholine can be excitatory or inhibitory • There are many modulator transmitters and they generally act on second messenger systems
20  cards
0225 Cell nutrients
•Describe the four macronutrients, discuss dietary sources, and recognise the importance of the macronutrients in human health •Describe the micronutrients, differentiate between fat soluble and water soluble vitamins, and recognise the importance of the micronutrients in human health •Identify the link between nutrient intake and disease, and give examples from the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines.
9  cards
0228 principles of membrane transport
• Cell and membrane structure • The need for membrane transport • Electrochemical gradients • Simple diffusion • Membrane transport proteins (Channels, Transporters )
13  cards
0226 Cell Biology 1
The creator of this deck did not yet add a description for what is included in this deck.
14  cards
0303 Cell Biology 2
The creator of this deck did not yet add a description for what is included in this deck.
17  cards
0305 fluid compartments
• Outline the different fluid compartments • Summarise the approximate compartment volumes • Describe how volumes of different fluid compartments are measured • recognise major ionic components in different compartments (cations and anions) • Outline the concept of free and bound ions
15  cards
0307 Osmosis, osmotic pressure and maintenance of equlibrium
• Osmosis occurs as particles diffuse down their concerntration gradients • H2O permeability is via aquaporins • Osmolality is an absolute measure, tonicity is a relative measure • Protein causes large osmotic flux • Osmolality determines the cell volume • Active cell processes regulate cell volume (eg Na+/K+‐ATPase) by altering intracellular ionic composition • Isotonic fluid replacement is essential to minimise cell volume changes
11  cards
0308 membrane resting and action potential
• Define a membrane potential • Explain the uneven distribution of ions across the cell membrane how it is maintained • Describe an action potential and recognise its components • Explain the role of the Na+ channel in the initiation of the AP • Explain how K+ channels are central for repolarisation • Outline the Hodgkin‐Huxley cycle • Summarise the mechanisms behind the absolute and relative refractory periods • Explain how different ion channels may influence the shape of the actio
15  cards
0312 Cell Biology 3
 How are cells constructed?  How do cells function?  How do they attach to each other?  How do they “talk” to each other?  How do they “react” to each other?
12  cards
0506 Acid/Base physiology
• Definition of pH" • Acids/Bases" • pH homeostasis" • pH values in body fluids" • Buffers" • Intracellular pH regulation" • Clinical points to remember"
20  cards
0407 excitation, inhibition and neuromodulation
• Know what renders a synaptic response excitatory or inhibitory • Understand how ion fluxes influence the excitability of the synapse • Appreciate that neurotransmitters excite, inhibit or modulate • Understand the synthesis, some of the actions, and the degradation of Glu, GABA and ACh • Be familiar with the notions of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors • Be aware of the major receptors types in the brain
13  cards
0414 action potential propagation and synaptic integration
The creator of this deck did not yet add a description for what is included in this deck.
17  cards
0429 Excitation-contraction coupling in muscle
• Describe the sequence of events involved in skeletal muscle contraction starting from synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction to the shortening of the sarcomere • Outline the key proteins involved in contraction and the significance of the cross‐bridge cycle • Recognise the role of Ca2+ in muscle contraction • Describe the mechanisms by which Ca2+ enters and exits skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, and how smooth muscle may differ • Compare / contrast the structural and fu
20  cards
0506 Flow and Pressure in Vessels
 be cognisant of a few physical principles that relate flow, pressure and velocity; among them Ohm’s law;  realise that arteries are cardiofugal and veins cardiopetal vessels;  know the notion of blood pressure;  appreciate factors determining resistance, pressure, flow, and its characteristics;  understand the distal impact of a resistance change;  recognise why some vascular beds display different characteristics.
11  cards
0513 Vascular filtration
The creator of this deck did not yet add a description for what is included in this deck.
3  cards
0519 spinal reflex and muscle control
The creator of this deck did not yet add a description for what is included in this deck.
15  cards
0520 Biological Basis of Pain
• Explain the difference between somatosensation and pain • Outline the range of responses to pain evoked from different structures of the body • Explain the difference between tactile sensory receptors and nociceptors • Describe the different varieties of nociceptors • Explain how nociceptors can be modulated • Summarise the afferent pathways of somatic and visceral pain • Describe the ascending neural pathways of tactile and pain/temp pathways from the periphery to the brainstem/corte
19  cards

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Physiology

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