Flashcards in 01/07 Overview Deck (46):
What is myasthenia gravis?
Autoimmune attack of acetylcholine receptors, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue
What is the ependyma?
Ciliated cuboidal epithelium that lines the ventricles of the brain
What is the telencephalon?
Includes the cerebral hemispheres and basal ganglia
The most advanced part of the brain
What is the diencephalon?
Includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
What structures are part of the epithalamus?
The pineal gland and the habenula
What structures are included in the mesencephalon?
Superior and inferior colliculi
Nuclei of cranial nerves III and IV
Red nucleus and substantia nigra
What structures constitute the extra-pyramidal system?
The red nucleus and the substantia nigra
What structures/divisions are present in the brainstem?
What are the divisions of the cerebellum, and what are their functions?
Archicerebellum - maintains equilibrium
Paleocerebellum - maintains muscle tone
Neocerebellum - controls muscle coordination
What structures are housed in the pontine tectum and tegmentum?
Tectum - nuclei of CN V, VI, VII, and VIII
Tegmentum - descending corticospinal tract, pontocerebellar crossing fibers, and the pontine nuclei
What is the function of the medulla? What structures does it contain?
The medulla is required to maintain cardiorespiratory function
It houses the descending corticospinal/pyramidal tract, nuclei for CN VIII-XII, and the inferior olivary nuclei
Different parts of the spinal cord contain different tracts or fibers - what are they, and where are they?
Ascending proprioceptive fibers - posterior part
Corticospinal tract (descending motor tract) - lateral part
Anterior horn and lower motor neurons - anterior part
What and where are Brodmann areas 1, 2, and 3?
They make up the primary sensory cortex, which is in the post-central gyrus
Where is the primary motor cortex?
In the precentral gyrus (Brodmann areas 4, 6, and 8)
Where is the auditory cortex?
In the superior temporal lobe (Brodmann areas 41 and 42)
What and where is Brodmann area 17?
It is the primary visual cortex, in the occipital lobe/calcarine fissure
What artery supplies the dura?
Middle meningeal artery
What dural layer creates the blood-brain barrier?
The pia mater
What is the "artery of stroke?" What areas does it supply?
Middle cerebral artery
Supplies entire lateral side of the brain
What areas of the brain does the posterior cerebral artery supply?
The occipital lobe and the hippocampus
What artery supplies the frontal lobe?
Anterior cerebral artery
What arteries supply the basal ganglia and the thalamus?
The "penetrators," striate arteries that branch from the Circle of Willis
Where is CSF produced?
What structures are responsible for reabsorbing CSF?
What dural layer envelopes the blood vessels that supply the brain?
What are the four major types of glia in the CNS, and what do they do?
Astrocytes - support neurons and form the blood-brain barrier
Oligodendrocytes - produce myelin in the brain
Ependyma - line the ventricles
Microglia - resident immunocompetent cells
What structure connects the two cerebral hemispheres?
Where is the lateral/Sylvian fissure positioned?
It separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes
What structures make up the basal ganglia?
Caudate, putamen and globus pallidus
What is the vascular origin of an epidural hematoma, and what does this mean for the clinical presentation?
Expand rapidly, and also deteriorate rapidly (fatal if not treated quickly)
What is the vascular origin of a subdural hematoma, and what does this mean for the clinical presentation?
Expand slowly, and often presents as confusion or dementia
What is the foramen of Monroe?
Opening that connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle
What is the aqueduct of Sylvius?
Connects the third and fourth ventricles
Through what openings do the ventricles empty into the subarachnoid space?
Via the foramina of Luschka (lateral) and the foramen of Magendie (medial)
What is Wenicke's aphasia/sensory aphasia?
Damage to the auditory cortex that results in an inability to understand spoken language
What is Broca's aphasia/motor aphasia?
Damage to the inferior motor cortex (speech motor cortex) that results in an inability to produce spoken or written language
What is Brodmann area 44?
Inferior part of the primary motor cortex, responsible for producing speech
What is the thalamus? What structures are included within it?
The major sensory and motor relay nucleus
Includes the medial and lateral geniculate bodies
List the cerebellar nuclei
How many spinal nerves are there? What are their divisions?
By what age do the cranial fissures permanently fuse?
Two years old
What areas of the brain are supplied by the anterior cerebral artery?
Medial aspects of the parietal and occipital lobes
Where is the transverse sinus located?
Within the dura of the caudal tentorium
What is the Vein of Galen?
A medial and rostral extension of the transverse sinus in the tentorium
What arteries supply the pons?
Penetrators branching from the basilar artery