01/07 Overview Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy > 01/07 Overview > Flashcards

Flashcards in 01/07 Overview Deck (46):
1

What is myasthenia gravis?

Autoimmune attack of acetylcholine receptors, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue

2

What is the ependyma?

Ciliated cuboidal epithelium that lines the ventricles of the brain

3

What is the telencephalon?

Includes the cerebral hemispheres and basal ganglia
The most advanced part of the brain

4

What is the diencephalon?

Includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus

5

What structures are part of the epithalamus?

The pineal gland and the habenula

6

What structures are included in the mesencephalon?

Superior and inferior colliculi
Nuclei of cranial nerves III and IV
Red nucleus and substantia nigra
Cerebral peduncles

7

What structures constitute the extra-pyramidal system?

The red nucleus and the substantia nigra

8

What structures/divisions are present in the brainstem?

Mesencephalon
Pons
Medulla

9

What are the divisions of the cerebellum, and what are their functions?

Archicerebellum - maintains equilibrium
Paleocerebellum - maintains muscle tone
Neocerebellum - controls muscle coordination

10

What structures are housed in the pontine tectum and tegmentum?

Tectum - nuclei of CN V, VI, VII, and VIII
Tegmentum - descending corticospinal tract, pontocerebellar crossing fibers, and the pontine nuclei

11

What is the function of the medulla? What structures does it contain?

The medulla is required to maintain cardiorespiratory function
It houses the descending corticospinal/pyramidal tract, nuclei for CN VIII-XII, and the inferior olivary nuclei

12

Different parts of the spinal cord contain different tracts or fibers - what are they, and where are they?

Ascending proprioceptive fibers - posterior part
Corticospinal tract (descending motor tract) - lateral part
Anterior horn and lower motor neurons - anterior part

13

What and where are Brodmann areas 1, 2, and 3?

They make up the primary sensory cortex, which is in the post-central gyrus

14

Where is the primary motor cortex?

In the precentral gyrus (Brodmann areas 4, 6, and 8)

15

Where is the auditory cortex?

In the superior temporal lobe (Brodmann areas 41 and 42)

16

What and where is Brodmann area 17?

It is the primary visual cortex, in the occipital lobe/calcarine fissure

17

What artery supplies the dura?

Middle meningeal artery

18

What dural layer creates the blood-brain barrier?

The pia mater

19

What is the "artery of stroke?" What areas does it supply?

Middle cerebral artery
Supplies entire lateral side of the brain

20

What areas of the brain does the posterior cerebral artery supply?

The occipital lobe and the hippocampus

21

What artery supplies the frontal lobe?

Anterior cerebral artery

22

What arteries supply the basal ganglia and the thalamus?

The "penetrators," striate arteries that branch from the Circle of Willis

23

Where is CSF produced?

Choroid plexus

24

What structures are responsible for reabsorbing CSF?

Arachnoid granulations

25

What dural layer envelopes the blood vessels that supply the brain?

Arachnoid mater

26

What are the four major types of glia in the CNS, and what do they do?

Astrocytes - support neurons and form the blood-brain barrier
Oligodendrocytes - produce myelin in the brain
Ependyma - line the ventricles
Microglia - resident immunocompetent cells

27

What structure connects the two cerebral hemispheres?

Corpus callosum

28

Where is the lateral/Sylvian fissure positioned?

It separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes

29

What structures make up the basal ganglia?

Caudate, putamen and globus pallidus

30

What is the vascular origin of an epidural hematoma, and what does this mean for the clinical presentation?

Arterial origin
Expand rapidly, and also deteriorate rapidly (fatal if not treated quickly)

31

What is the vascular origin of a subdural hematoma, and what does this mean for the clinical presentation?

Venous origin
Expand slowly, and often presents as confusion or dementia

32

What is the foramen of Monroe?

Opening that connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle

33

What is the aqueduct of Sylvius?

Connects the third and fourth ventricles

34

Through what openings do the ventricles empty into the subarachnoid space?

Via the foramina of Luschka (lateral) and the foramen of Magendie (medial)

35

What is Wenicke's aphasia/sensory aphasia?

Damage to the auditory cortex that results in an inability to understand spoken language

36

What is Broca's aphasia/motor aphasia?

Damage to the inferior motor cortex (speech motor cortex) that results in an inability to produce spoken or written language

37

What is Brodmann area 44?

Inferior part of the primary motor cortex, responsible for producing speech

38

What is the thalamus? What structures are included within it?

The major sensory and motor relay nucleus
Includes the medial and lateral geniculate bodies

39

List the cerebellar nuclei

Dentate
Embolliform
Globose
Fastigial

40

How many spinal nerves are there? What are their divisions?

31
Cervical (8)
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacral (5)
Coccygeal (1)

41

By what age do the cranial fissures permanently fuse?

Two years old

42

What areas of the brain are supplied by the anterior cerebral artery?

Frontal lobes
Medial aspects of the parietal and occipital lobes

43

Where is the transverse sinus located?

Within the dura of the caudal tentorium

44

What is the Vein of Galen?

A medial and rostral extension of the transverse sinus in the tentorium

45

What arteries supply the pons?

Penetrators branching from the basilar artery

46

What is hydrocephalus?

Abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles, often caused by obstruction of the aqueduct of Sylvius