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Flashcards in 10.0 Psychology Deck (106)
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Define introspection

Examination/observation of one's own mental or emotional processes


What is structuralism?

Approach to psychology where complex perceptions are broken down into 'elementary sensations'

This approach is associated with Wundt who attempted to classify stimuli according to their sensory properties


What is functionalism?

Approach to psychology that focused on how mental processes combine and interact to achieve functions

Associated with James


Define cognition

A mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses


Define overt attention

Physically moving in order to process object/region


Define covert attention

Arises when we don't move our eyes. Using attention to focus on some objects and ignoring others (independent of eye movements)


What is the filter model of attention?

Sensory information has to pass a bottleneck to reach a limited-capacity area where processing takes place.

The filter model states that a filter selects information (based on physical attributes) and ignores the rest by blocking it


What is the filter-attenuation model?

The filter does not completely block the ignored information, it simply attenuates it


What evidence is there fore the filter-attenuation model?

1) During dichotic listening, if messages delivered to subjects switched sides, the subjects subconsciously matched this switch

2) During dichotic listening, subjects would notice their name if it was presented on the 'ignored side'

3) During dichotic listening, fear inducing words played to the ignored side lead to galvanic skin responses


Endogenous vs exogenous attention ques:

Endogenous = cue presented in the centre of screen (and centre of focus) - responses to this are voluntary

Exogenous = cue presented outside the centre of focus - responses to this are reflexive (involuntary)


Hoe many objects can be tracked in multiple object tracking?



What lobe is affected in attention disorders?

Parietal lobe


What are three disorders of attention?

1) Unilateral neglect syndrome
- Unilateral parietal lobe damage
- Patients fail to pay attention to one side

2) Unilateral extinction
- Unilateral parietal lobe damage
- Patients can notice stimuli on both sides when presented in isolation
- If stimuli are presented together - one side is affected

3) Balint's syndrome
- Bilateral parietal lobe damage
- Triad of symptoms:
i) Simultanagnosia
ii) Fixity of gaze
iii) Optic ataxia


What are the two sensory memory stores?

1) Iconic store
- Brief sensory store for visual info
2) Echoic store
- Auditory info
Both are short duration (0.5-2 seconds)
Both are passive
Large capacity (difficult to measure)


What is the memory span (capacity) of short-term memory?

7 ± 2 digits


What is recency effect?

Last few items in list are remembered better
Due to short term memory


What is primacy effect?

Earlier items in list are better remembered

Due to long term memory


What are the 4 primary components of the working memory model?

1) Phonological loop
- Short term storage of info in speech based form

2) Visuo-spatial sketch pad
- Short term storage of spatial and visual information

3) Multimodal episodic buffer
- Hold and integrates diverse info (from phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and long term memory)

4) Central executive
- Modality free
- Responsible for selecting + initiating cognitive processing


What are the three stages of processing human memory?

1) Encoding
2) Storage
3) Retrieval


What was Ebbinghaus' experiment?

- He was sole subject
- Taught himself a series of nonsense syllables until he could repeat it twice in order, without errors
- Tested his retention at various delays
- Retention decreases as interval increases
- Rate of forgetting goes down


What factors influence memory encoding?

1) Practice
2) Levels of processing (depth)
3) Organisation
4) Spacing
5) Active retrieval


What are the two major forms of amnesia?

1) Retrograde - forgetting events prior to trauma

2) Anterograde - Inability to retain new material in permanent form


What are the causes of amnesia?

V - Anoxia / ischaemia
I - Encephalitis
M - Dietary insufficiency (Korsakoff)/ alcoholism
I - Neurosurgery

D - Alzheimer's


Unilateral right medial temporal lobe lesions cause _________ defects, whilst unilateral left medial temporal lobe lesions cause _________ defects.

Unilateral right medial temporal lobe lesions cause non-verbal defects, whilst unilateral left medial temporal lobe lesions cause verbal defects.


Where does brain damage occur in cases with selective loss of short term memory, but intact long term memory?

Posterior cortex


Define agnosia:

Higher level sensory deficits


Define movement agnosia:

Subject cannot see movement


Define prosopagnosia:

Subject cannot recognise faces


What are the two types of visual agnosia?

1) Associative agnosia
- Subject cannot recognise/name/use objects
- Can draw them accurately

2) Apperceptive agnosia
- Can name objects
- Cannot draw object


Declarative vs non-declarative memory:

1) Declarative memory (Explicit)
- Requires conscious recollection of previous experience
- Based on facts and events
- Temporal lobe + diencephalon

2) Non-declarative memory (implicit/procedural)
- Knowledge gained through practice
- Represents a skill
- Basal ganglia + cerebellum