Flashcards in 12. Depression Deck (5):
Describe the symptoms required for diagnosis of depression, esp. 3 core symptoms.
Should be continuous for at least 2 weeks.
1. low mood
2. lack of enjoyment and interest (anhedonia)
3. fatigue or lack of energy
May be associated with:
4. depressive thoughts, e.g. guilt, self-blame, suicidal thoughts
5. biological symptoms, e.g. loss of appetite, weight loss, sleep disturbances (esp. early morning waking)
Name 3 brain structures that may be involved in pathophysiology of depression.
Hypothesis - mood determined by functional circuits between these areas:
1. LIMBIC SYSTEM
- mainly involved in emotion, motivation and memory (e.g. hippocampus)
2. FRONTAL LOBES
- esp. prefrontal area (may be hypoperfused in depression)
3. BASAL GANGLIA
- have both motor function and psychological function, e.g. emotion, cognition and behaviour
Name 2 main NTs implicated in depressive disorders. Where are these produced and what is their function?
- involved in mood, behaviour (arousal and attention) and memory functions
- produced in locus coeruleus in brainstem and transported to cortex and limbic system
- acts at alpha1/2 and beta1/2 Rs - likely that alpha Rs play role in arousal and mood
2. SEROTONIN (better evidence)
- involved in sleep, impulse control, appetite and mood
- produced in brainstem raphe nuclei and transported to cortex and limbic system
- many different pre- and post-serotonergic Rs
- serotonin depletion associated with depressive symptoms
Name 3 types of factors predisposing to depression.
1. genetics (50% vulnerability)
2. childhood experiences (e.g. quality of attachment, loss of parent, bullying)
3. female gender