3) Cardiovascular Conditions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3) Cardiovascular Conditions Deck (5):
1

Describe the management of Heart Failure.

1st line - ACEi AND Beta blockers
2nd line - Spironolactone
3rd line - Hydralazine with nitrates

2

Name THREE medications used in Heart Failure that IMPROVE MORTALITY.

- ACEi (first line)
- Beta blockers (first line)
- Spironolactone
- Hydralazine w/ nitrates (if used, have to be clustered together)

Also accepted - ARBs

3

What is the first-line investigation for suspected Heart Failure.

BNP levels

4

Which blood result determines in what time frame an echo would be performed in someone with suspected Heart Failure? Describe the different scenarios possible.

BNP:

- Previous MI - do an echo within two weeks
- No previous MI, but high level of BNP (400+) - do an echo within two weeks
- No previous MI, but raised level of BNP (100-400) - do an echo within six weeks

5

Name THREE of the major Framingham criteria features.

Hint: SAW PANIC

- S3 heart sound present (‘gallop’ sound)
- Acute pulmonary oedema (left side of heart is unable to clear fluid from lungs)
- Weight loss of more than 4.5kg in 5 days when treated (patients lose their retained fluids)
- PND
- Abdominojugular reflux (JVP rises when pressure applied over liver area)
- Neck vein distended (JVP at rest)
- Increased cardiac shadow on X-ray (Cardiomegaly)
- Crackles on auscultation