3) Cardiovascular Conditions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3) Cardiovascular Conditions Deck (5):

Describe the management of Heart Failure.

1st line - ACEi AND Beta blockers
2nd line - Spironolactone
3rd line - Hydralazine with nitrates


Name THREE medications used in Heart Failure that IMPROVE MORTALITY.

- ACEi (first line)
- Beta blockers (first line)
- Spironolactone
- Hydralazine w/ nitrates (if used, have to be clustered together)

Also accepted - ARBs


What is the first-line investigation for suspected Heart Failure.

BNP levels


Which blood result determines in what time frame an echo would be performed in someone with suspected Heart Failure? Describe the different scenarios possible.


- Previous MI - do an echo within two weeks
- No previous MI, but high level of BNP (400+) - do an echo within two weeks
- No previous MI, but raised level of BNP (100-400) - do an echo within six weeks


Name THREE of the major Framingham criteria features.


- S3 heart sound present (‘gallop’ sound)
- Acute pulmonary oedema (left side of heart is unable to clear fluid from lungs)
- Weight loss of more than 4.5kg in 5 days when treated (patients lose their retained fluids)
- Abdominojugular reflux (JVP rises when pressure applied over liver area)
- Neck vein distended (JVP at rest)
- Increased cardiac shadow on X-ray (Cardiomegaly)
- Crackles on auscultation