Flashcards in 3.2. Perception and Memory Deck (24):
What is perception?
The process by which our brain analyses and makes sense of incoming sensory information.
What is the visual perception type "segregation of objects"?
When the brain segregates the image into the figure and the background to make the image into a coherent pattern.
What is the visual perception type "relative size"?
When the brain uses visual cues such as relative size to make sense of a certain image. The further away an object is, the smaller it appears.
What is the visual perception type "superimposition"?
When the image of one object partially blocks the image of another by superimposition, the blocked object is perceived as farther away.
What is the visual perception type "relative height in field"?
Where a group of objects have their bases below a visible horizon, the objects with lower bases appear closer.
What is binocular disparity?
When our brain fuses the images of our left eye and the images of our right eye together to create one overall image. This helps us perceive distance.
What is perceptual constancy?
When we take into account sizes and shapes of well-known objects as we look at a changing scene. This prevents the perception of a change in size or shape of an object.
What is the most important thing when it comes to recognising an object?
Shape over detail.
What is a perceptual set?
A group of influences like past experiences, context and expectation.
What does our memory consist of?
The sensory memory, the short-term memory and the long-term memory.
What is the serial position effect?
The phenomenon that the most recent and the first items of a list are better recalled than the items in the middle of the list.
What is chunking?
A technique when you group information together into one item.
How do we transfer items from our sensory memory into our STM?
By paying attention to it.
How do we transfer information form our short-term memory into our long-term memory?
By rehearsing the information, organising it or elaborating on it.
What is rehearsal?
Repeating or practicing the information.
What is organisation?
Placing the information into a framework.
What is elaboration?
Increasing knowledge about the information.
What is encoding?
When information is added to our memory. It involves changing nerve signals into ones that our brain can process.
What are contextual cues?
Cues that act as signals or reminders which help us retrieve information from our long-term memory.
What is stored in the episodic memory and where is it found?
Personal facts, cortex.
What is stored in our semantic memory and where is it found?
General knowledge, cortex.
What is stored in our procedural memory and where is it found?
Motor and mental skills, motor cortex.
What is stored in our emotional memory and where is it found?
Positive and negative associations, cortex and limbic system.