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Flashcards in A Level Caw Deck (23)
1

How many electrons are in a s orbital?

2

2

How many electrons are in a p orbital?

6

3

How many electrons are in a d orbital?

10

4

How many electrons are in a f orbital?

12

5

What shape are s orbitals?

Spherical

6

What shapes are p orbitals?

Dumbbelll

7

What shapes are d orbitals?

There’re five

8

What shape is a molecule with 2 double bonds?
Bond angle?

Linear
180

9

What shape and angle with three single bonds?

Trigonal planar
120

10

What shape and angle with 4 single bonds?

Tetrahedral
109.5

11

5 single bonds?

Trigonal bipyramidal
90 and 120

12

3 single bonds and 1 lone pair?

Trigonal pyramidal
107.5

13

2 single and 2 Lone pairs?

Bent linear
104.5

14

What is electronegativity?

The attraction that each bonded atom has for the pair of electrons in the covalent bond

15

What is a permanent dipole?

When the electrons in a covalent bond are shared unequally resulting in charges at each end

16

What happens when the electronegativity difference is higher?

The ionic character is greater

17

What happens when the electronegativities are more similar?

The covalent characteristics are greater

18

When do dipoles cancel out?

When the molecule is symmetrical

19

What are induced dipole interactions?

When electron density fluctuates, 1 end becomes negative. The attraction between these temporary dipoles

20

What are permanent dipole interactions?

When to dipoles attract

21

What are hydrogen bonds?

Strong permanent dipole interactions

22

What must there be for a hydrogen bond to occur?

1. An h atom attached to a v electronegative ion n,f,o
2. One or more lone pairs

23

Why is ice less dense than water?

The hydrogen bonds in water hold it in an open lattice