Flashcards in A Level Caw Deck (23)
How many electrons are in a s orbital?
How many electrons are in a p orbital?
How many electrons are in a d orbital?
How many electrons are in a f orbital?
What shape are s orbitals?
What shapes are p orbitals?
What shapes are d orbitals?
What shape is a molecule with 2 double bonds?
What shape and angle with three single bonds?
What shape and angle with 4 single bonds?
5 single bonds?
90 and 120
3 single bonds and 1 lone pair?
2 single and 2 Lone pairs?
What is electronegativity?
The attraction that each bonded atom has for the pair of electrons in the covalent bond
What is a permanent dipole?
When the electrons in a covalent bond are shared unequally resulting in charges at each end
What happens when the electronegativity difference is higher?
The ionic character is greater
What happens when the electronegativities are more similar?
The covalent characteristics are greater
When do dipoles cancel out?
When the molecule is symmetrical
What are induced dipole interactions?
When electron density fluctuates, 1 end becomes negative. The attraction between these temporary dipoles
What are permanent dipole interactions?
When to dipoles attract
What are hydrogen bonds?
Strong permanent dipole interactions
What must there be for a hydrogen bond to occur?
1. An h atom attached to a v electronegative ion n,f,o
2. One or more lone pairs