what are the intrinsic back muscles?
What is the basic unit of the nervous system?
What are the two main types of neurone?
What do multipolar neurones normally do?
Innervate skeletal muscle and are responsible for the autonomic nervous system
Where is the cell body of multipolar neurones found?
In the Central Nervous system
What do Unipolar neurones do?
Where is the cell body found in unipolar neurones?
The cell body is found in the peripheral nervous system
What neurone is afferent and what neurone is efferent?
Multipolar - efferent
Unipolar - afferent
What does efferent and afferent mean?
Efferent - effectively moving something
Afferent- aouch - sensory
What is a nerve?
Collection of axons surrounded by connective tissue and blood vessels
Name the 12 cranial nerves?
IX Glossopharyngeal nerve
XI Spinal Accessory nerve
XII Hypoglossal nerve
What are the special sensory nerves?
What are the motor cranial nerves?
What cranial nerves have both a sensory and motor component ?
Where do you find spinal nerves?
Only in the intervertebral foramen
Do sensory axons pass into the posterior or anterior horn of the spinal cord?
All sensory axons pass from the spinal nerve into the poterior horn
What do sensory axons travel through starting at the spinal nerve>
Dorsal root ganglion
Where motor axons travel from starting from the spinal cord and ending at the spinal nerve?
What does each spinal nerve pair supply to each body segment?
General sensory supply
Somatic motor to skeletal muscles
Sympathetic nerve supply to the skin and to the smooth muscles of arterioles
What is a dermatome?
Area of skin supplied with sensory innervation from a single spinal nerve
What is a myotome?
The skeletal muscles supplied with motor innervation from a single spinal nerve
What dermatome is located at the male nipple?
What dermatome is at the umbilicus?
What dermatomes supply the posterior scalp, neck and shoulder?
C2 C3 C4
What dermatomes are involved in the upper limb?
C5 - T1
What anterior rami form the cervical plexus?
What anterior rami form the brachial plexus?
What anterior rami form the lumbar plexus?
What anterior rami form the Sacral plexus?
At what vertebral level is the sympathetic chain?
T1 to L2
How the presynaptic parasympathetic axons leave the central nervous system?
Some cranial nerves
Sacral Spinal nerves
What spinal nerves let presynaptic parasympathetic axons leave the central nervous system?
How does parasympathic supply get to the eye?
Via the ciliary ganglion
How do the organs of the neck, chest and midgut get parasympathetic supply?
How does the hindgut, pelvis and perineum get its parasympathetic supply?
Via the sacral spinal nerves
What is horner's syndrome?
Impaired sympathic innervation to head and neck
increased warmth and redness
What are the names of the three parts of the trapezius muscle?
What muscle is commonly responsible for lower back pain
What do the extrinsic back muscles do ?
Move upper limb
What are the extrinsic back muscles?
What do the intrinsic back muscles do?
Maintain back posture
Where does the erector spinae attatch?
Inferirorly to the sacrum and the iliac crest
Superiorly to either a rib or a vertebrae
Where do you find the transversospinalis?
Found within the grooves between the transverse and spinous processes
How are the muscles of the back aranged? (axial Image)
What muscles flex the spine?
Psoas major and rectus abdominis
What muscles extend the spine?
Erector spinae and transversospinalis
What do you call the space between vertebrae that the spinal nerves pass through?
What are the tough parts of the intervertebral discs?
What are the three ligament strips associated with the spinal cord?
posterior longitudinal ligament
anterior longitudinal ligament
What are the two ligaments associated with the spinous processes ?
What is special about C1's shape?
It does not have a body or a spinous process
instead it has an anterior arch and a posterior arch
What is special about C2's shape?
It has an odontoid process which projects superiorly from the body
What is the first palpable spinous process ( normally )
What joint is responsible for flexion and extension of the neck?
What joint is responsible for turning your head?
What spinal nerve root levels make up the femoral nerve?
L2 L3 L4
What supplies cutaneous innervation over the spine?
Posterior parts of the back dermatomes are supplied by posterior rami.
How do you test C5 myotome?
How do you test C7 myotome?
How do you test c8 myotome?
How do you test c7 myotome?
How do you test T1 myotome?
How do you test L2,L3 myotome?
How do you test L5 and S1 myotome?