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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (65)
1

what are the intrinsic back muscles?

Erector Spinae

 

Transversospinalis

2

What is the basic unit of the nervous system?

Neurone

3

What are the two main types of neurone?

Multipolar

 

Unipolar

4

What do multipolar neurones normally do?

Innervate skeletal muscle and are responsible for the autonomic nervous system

5

Where is the cell body of multipolar neurones found?

In the Central Nervous system

6

What do Unipolar neurones do?

Sensory receptors

7

Where is the cell body found in unipolar neurones?

The cell body is found in the peripheral nervous system

8

What neurone is afferent and what neurone is efferent?

Multipolar - efferent

 

Unipolar - afferent

9

What does efferent and afferent mean?

Efferent - effectively moving something

 

Afferent- aouch - sensory

10

What is a nerve?

Collection of axons surrounded by connective tissue and blood vessels

11

Name the 12 cranial nerves?

I Olfactory

II Optic

III Oculomotor

IV Trochlear

V Trigeminal

VI Abducent

VII Facial

VIII Vestibulocochlear

IX Glossopharyngeal nerve

X Vagus

XI Spinal Accessory nerve

XII Hypoglossal nerve

 

 

12

What are the special sensory nerves?

Olfactory

Optic

Vestibulocochlear

13

What are the motor cranial nerves?

Oculomotor

Trochlear

abducent

spinal accessory

Hypoglossal

14

What cranial nerves have both a sensory and motor component ?

Trigeminal nerve

Facial nerve

Glossopharyngeal nerve

Vagus Nerve

15

Where do you find spinal nerves?

Only in the intervertebral foramen

16

Do sensory axons pass into the posterior or anterior horn of the spinal cord?

All sensory axons pass from the spinal nerve into the poterior horn

17

What do sensory axons travel through starting at the spinal nerve>

Dorsal root ganglion

Posterior roots

Posterior rootlets

Posterior horn

18

Where motor axons travel from starting from the spinal cord and ending at the spinal nerve?

Anterior horn

Anterior rootlets

Anterior root

Spinal nerve

19

What does each spinal nerve pair supply to each body segment?

General sensory supply

 

Somatic motor to skeletal muscles

 

Sympathetic nerve supply to the skin and to the smooth muscles of arterioles

20

What is a dermatome?

Area of skin supplied with sensory innervation from a single spinal nerve

21

What is a myotome?

The skeletal muscles supplied with motor innervation from a single spinal nerve

22

What dermatome is located at the male nipple?

T4

23

What dermatome is at the umbilicus?

T10

24

What dermatomes supply the posterior scalp, neck and shoulder?

C2 C3 C4

25

What dermatomes are involved in the upper limb?

C5 - T1

26

What anterior rami form the cervical plexus?

c1-c4

27

What anterior rami form the brachial plexus?

C5-T1

28

What anterior rami form the lumbar plexus?

L1-L4

29

What anterior rami form the Sacral plexus?

L5-S4

30

At what vertebral level is the sympathetic chain?

T1 to L2

31

How the presynaptic parasympathetic axons leave the central nervous system?

Some cranial nerves

Sacral Spinal nerves

32

What spinal nerves let presynaptic parasympathetic axons leave the central nervous system?

Oculomotor nerve

Facial

Glossopharyngeal

Vagus

33

How does parasympathic supply get to the eye?

Via the ciliary ganglion

34

How do the organs of the neck, chest and midgut get parasympathetic supply?

vagus nerve

35

How does the hindgut, pelvis and perineum get its parasympathetic supply?

Via the sacral spinal nerves

36

What is horner's syndrome?

Impaired sympathic innervation to head and neck

 

Miosis

ptosis

anhydrosis

increased warmth and redness

37

What are the names of the three parts of the trapezius muscle?

Descending

Transverse

Ascending

38

What muscle is commonly responsible for lower back pain

Erector Spinae

39

What do the extrinsic back muscles do ?

Move upper limb

40

What are the extrinsic back muscles?

Rhomboids

Trapezius

Latissimus dorsi

levator scapule

41

What do the intrinsic back muscles do?

Maintain back posture

Move spine

42

Where does the erector spinae attatch?

Inferirorly to the sacrum and the iliac crest

 

Superiorly to either a rib or a vertebrae

43

Where do you find the transversospinalis?

Found within the grooves between the transverse and spinous processes

44

How are the muscles of the back aranged? (axial Image)

45

What muscles flex the spine?

Psoas major and rectus abdominis

46

What muscles extend the spine?

Erector spinae and transversospinalis

47

What do you call the space between vertebrae that the spinal nerves pass through?

Intervertberal foramen

48

What are the tough parts of the intervertebral discs?

Annulus fibrosus

 

Nucleus pulposus

49

What are the three ligament strips associated with the spinal cord?

Ligamentum flavum

 

posterior longitudinal ligament

anterior longitudinal ligament

50

What are the two ligaments associated with the spinous processes ?

51

What is special about C1's shape?

It does not have a body or a spinous process

 

instead it has an anterior arch and a posterior arch

52

What is special about C2's shape?

It has an odontoid process which projects superiorly from the body

53

What is the first palpable spinous process ( normally )

C7

54

What joint is responsible for flexion and extension of the neck?

Atlanto-occipital join

55

What joint is responsible for turning your head?

Atlanto-axial joints

56

What spinal nerve root levels make up the femoral nerve?

L2 L3 L4

57

What supplies cutaneous innervation over the spine?

Posterior parts of the back dermatomes are supplied by posterior rami.

58

How do you test C5 myotome?

Abduction

59

How do you test C7 myotome?

Adduction

60

How do you test c8 myotome?

Finger flexion

61

How do you test c7 myotome?

Finger Extension

62

How do you test T1 myotome?

Adduction

63

How do you test L2,L3 myotome?

hip flexion

64

How do you test L5 and S1 myotome?

Hip extension

65