Autonomic- Sympathetic Division Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Autonomic- Sympathetic Division Deck (32):
0

Where is the preganglionic neuron cell body in the sympathetic division?

Located in the lateral horn of levels T1-L2

1

What neurotransmitter is used in the preganglionic synapse of the sympathetic and parasympathetic division?

Acetylcholine

2

What neurotransmitter is used in the postganglionic synapse in the sympathetic nervous system?

Epinephrine.

3

Briefly describe the distinction of organization in the sympathetic vs parasympathetic nervous system.

Sympathetic- the preganglionic nerve fibers are very short, the sympathetic ganglion is located near the spinal cord and the postganglionic nerve fibers are very long.

Parasympathetic- the preganglionic nerve fibers are long, the ganglion is on or near the target tissue and the postganglionic nerve fibers are short.

4

Where are the preganglionic cell bodies located in the sympathetic NS?

Lateral horn

5

Where are the postganglionic cell bodies located in the sympathetic NS?

In the sympathetic ganglion

6

What spinal nerves carry sympathetic fibers?

T1-L2

7

By what rout do sympathetic fibers reach the cranium and cranial nerves?

The paravertebral chain ascends in the neck to the superior cervical ganglion. From there, the postganglionic fibers ascend via the carotid plexus to its cranial destination. Also some of these nerve fibers distribute to the terminal end of cranial nerves.

8

Are the sympathetic fibers that reach the cranial areas pre or postganglionic?

POSTGANGLIONIC!

9

what effect does sympathetic activation have on salivation?

sympathetic stimulation increases saliva secretion, although to a lesser extent than parasympathetic, increases mucus secretion, making the saliva much more viscous.

10

what effect does sympathetic activation have on pupil reflex?

Dilates pupil

11

what effect does sympathetic activation have on blood vessel diameter?

Constricts diameter

12

what effect does sympathetic activation have on bronchi?

Dilates bronchi

13

what effect does sympathetic activation have on heart rate?

Increases

14

What is the pathway of sympathetic innervation to the eye?

Beginning at the lateral horn, the preganglionic fibers ascend to the superior portion of the cervical sympathetic ganglion and synapse w the postganglionic cell bodies. From there the post fibers travel to the eye.

Pupillary dilation
1° (Posterior hypothalamus → Ciliospinal center) → 2° (Superior cervical ganglion) → 3° (Sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion → Nasociliary nerve → Long ciliary nerves → Iris dilator muscle)

15

Be able to list the components of the sympathetic nervous system on blood vessels.

I'm not too sure on this but here is my guess.

The SNS definitely causes blood vessel contraction. The preganglionic fibers come from the lateral horn in the spinal regions T1-L2. These fibers quickly synapse on the postganglionic cell bodies in the sympathetic ganglion. In addition, some fibers ascend to the cervical ganglia for the upper body. From there the postganglionic fibers travel to blood vessels to regulate their diameter. ( I'm not sure of the regulation part)

16

Describe the sympathetic pathway to the salivary glands?

The preganglionic fibers come from the lateral horn in the spinal regions. These fibers ascend and synapse on the postganglionic cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglion. From there the postganglionic fibers travel to the salivary glandsto regulate salivation.

17

Describe the sympathetic pathway to the lungs regulating bronchi diameter.

The preganglionic fibers come from the lateral horn in the spinal regions. Some of these fibers ascend to the cervical ganglion and synapse whereas others synapse on the upper paravertebral postganglionic cell bodies. From there the postganglionic fibers travel through the pulmonary plexus and finally arrive at the lungs to regulate the bronchi diameter.

18

Describe the sympathetic pathway to the heart regulating heart rate.

The preganglionic fibers come from the lateral horn in the spinal regions. These fibers ascend to the cervical ganglion and to the upper thoracic paravertebral ganglion where they synapse on the postganglionic cell bodies. From there the postganglionic fibers travel through the carotid plexus and finally arrive at the heart to regulate heart rate.

19

Define Horner syndrome

Loss of sympathetic innervation to face

20

Define ptosis

Eyelid droop

21

Define miosis

Small pupil

22

Define anhydrosis

Dry skin

23

Define endophthalmos

Apparent sunken eye

24

What are the 4 symptoms of Horner syndrome

Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis and endophthalmos

25

The enteric nervous system provides innervation for what structures?

Intestinal, pancreas and gall bladder.

26

Describe the sympathetic pathway to the enteric system.

The preganglionic fibers come from the lateral horn in the spinal regions T6-L2. Some of These fibers ascend to the celiac ganglion and others to the mesenteric ganglion where they synapse on the postganglionic cell bodies. From there the postganglionic fibers travel to the enteric system.

27

Describe the enteric nervous system.

A neural plexus exists between the layers of muscle and endothelium. There are two plexuses:
1. myenteric which is responsible for regulating tract motility.
2. Submucosal which is responsible for regulating blood flow endothelial cell secretions.

28

What is the insular cortex responsible for?

Awareness

29

What is the frontal cortex responsible for?

Organize our thoughts in place and time

30

What is the cingulate cortex responsible for?

Emotional motor response.

31

What is the amygdala responsible for?

Social emotional evaluation