B1.4 Interdependence and Adaptation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B1.4 Interdependence and Adaptation Deck (16)
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1

What do organisms need to survive and reproduce?

A supply of materials from their surroundings and from other living organisms

2

Name four things for which plants compete with each other

- Light
- Space
- Water
- Minerals from the soil

3

Name four things for which animals compete with each other

- Territory
- Food
- Water
- Mates

4

Define 'adaptation'

A feature of the body which helps the organism to survive

5

How are desert animals adapted to dry, hot conditions?

- Large surface area to volume ratio
- Efficient with water : concentrated urine, less sweat
- Thin layers of body fat
- Thin coat
- A sandy colour - camoflauge

6

How are arctic animals adapted to cold conditions?

- Small surface area to volume ratio
- Thick layer of blubber for insulation (also acts as food source)
- Thick hairy coats
- Greasy fur sheds water to stop cooling by evaporation
- White fur - camoflauge

7

How are desert plants adapted to little water?

- Small surface area to volume ratio
- Less leaves e.g cacti (leaves lose water)
- Water storage tissues
- Some have shallow but extensive roots to absorb water quickly over a large area at the surface
- Others have deep roots to access underground water

8

How are plants/animals adapted to deter predators?

- Armour e.g thorns, sharp spines, shells
- Poison e.g bees, ivy
- Warning colours to ward them off

9

What three conditions are extremophiles adapted to live in?

- High temperatures
- High pressures
- High levels of salt

10

Name 4 living factors that cause environmental change.

- A change in the occurrence of infectious diseases
- A change in the predator number
- A change in the prey number/availability of food sources
- A change in the number/type of competitors

11

Name 3 non living factors that cause environmental change.

- A change in the average temperature
- A change in the average rainfall
- A change in the level of air/water pollution

12

Explain three ways environmental change can affect populations.

- Population size increases e.g more prey means more predators
- Population size decreases e.g pesticides, less nectar rich plants and more disease having a negative effect on bee population
- Population distribution changes e.g bird species distribution changing because of a rise in temperature.

13

Name two types of living indicators used to measure environmental changes.

- Lichen
- Invertebrates e.g Larvae

14

How are lichen used to measure environmental changes?

- Lichen can be used to monitor air pollution, the number and type in an area can show how clean the air is.
- Bushy lichens need very clean air, crusty lichens can survive more polluted air.

15

How are invertebrates used to measure environmental changes?

- They can be used as water pollution indicators and indicators of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water
- Mayfly larvae are very sensitive to these levels and their presence indicates clean water (clean water = less bacteria = less oxygen used up)
- Other invertebrate species e.g sludgeworms indicate high levels of water pollution

16

Name four non-living indicators used to measure environmental change and how they are measured.

- Oxygen levels : dissolved oxygen meters in water
- Temperature : automatic weather stations containing thermometers
- Average yearly rainfall : rain gauges