Flashcards in Biostats & Epi for PM Deck (138)

Loading flashcards...

1

## Fetal Death Rate Equation

### total number of fetal deaths in a given time period/total number of live births during the same period of time x 1000

2

## Infant Mortality Rate Equation

### total number of deaths of infants (<1 y/o) in a time period/total number of live births during the same period x 1000

3

## Maternal Mortality Rate Equation

### deaths due to pregnancy related illness in a given time period/total number of live births during the same period of time x 100,000

4

## Neonatal Mortality Rate Equation

### total number of deaths of neonates (<28 days old) in a given time period/total number of live births during the same period of time x 1000

5

## Perinatal Mortality Rate Equation

### neonatal deaths + fetal deaths in a given time period/total number live births and fetal deaths during the same time period x 1000

6

## ecological fallacy definition

### an association at the population level is not necessarily true at the individual level

7

## studies with ecological fallacy

### cross-sectional studies

8

## vital statistics recorded (4)

### birth, death, marriage, divorce

9

## length bias definition

### when a less aggressive disease appears to have a higher incidence because slower-moving diseases are more likely to be detected

10

## non differential bias is the same as

### random error

11

## lead time bias definition

### appearance that early diagnosis of a disease prolongs survival

12

## Hawthorne effect definition

### individual behavior changes when a person knows they are being observed

13

## regression to the mean definition

### the further a value is from the mean, the more likely future recordings are closer to the mean

14

## Neyman bias definition

###
selective survival bias

cases in a study have different exposures than the ones that die

15

## When does stratification reduce confounding?

### analysis stage

16

## 3 ways to reduce confounding during the design stage

###
randomization

restriction

matching

17

## 3 ways to reduce confounding during the analysis stage

###
standardization

stratification

statistical modeling

18

## Bayes theorem equation

### (prevalence)(sensitivity)/(prevalence)(sensitivity) + [(1-prev)(1-specificity)]

19

## incidence density definition

### number of new cases of a disease per summation of time that each person is at risk of a disease in a specified time and place

20

## incidence density equation

### #new cases/sum of person-time

21

## central limit theorem definition

### when there are a large amount of mutually independent random variables, the mean population will approach normal distribution (n >30)

22

## IQ mean and SD

### 100 +/- 15

23

## z-score definiton

### how many standard deviations are between an observed value and the mean

24

## z-score equation

### observed value - mean / standard deviation

25

## rule of addition equation

###
event 1 + event 2 - (event 1 and event 2 overlap) = probability

used for non-mutually exclusive events

26

## standard mortality ratio equation

### observed # of deaths/expected # of deaths x 100

27

## direct adjustment

### when you use a second population to extrapolate estimates

28

## null hypothesis definition

### there is no difference between the variables being tested

29

## type 1 error definition

### when a null hypothesis is rejected when it is actually true (ex. false-positives)

30