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Flashcards in Biostats & Epi for PM Deck (138)
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1

Fetal Death Rate Equation

total number of fetal deaths in a given time period/total number of live births during the same period of time x 1000

2

Infant Mortality Rate Equation

total number of deaths of infants (<1 y/o) in a time period/total number of live births during the same period x 1000

3

Maternal Mortality Rate Equation

deaths due to pregnancy related illness in a given time period/total number of live births during the same period of time x 100,000

4

Neonatal Mortality Rate Equation

total number of deaths of neonates (<28 days old) in a given time period/total number of live births during the same period of time x 1000

5

Perinatal Mortality Rate Equation

neonatal deaths + fetal deaths in a given time period/total number live births and fetal deaths during the same time period x 1000

6

ecological fallacy definition

an association at the population level is not necessarily true at the individual level

7

studies with ecological fallacy

cross-sectional studies

8

vital statistics recorded (4)

birth, death, marriage, divorce

9

length bias definition

when a less aggressive disease appears to have a higher incidence because slower-moving diseases are more likely to be detected

10

non differential bias is the same as

random error

11

lead time bias definition

appearance that early diagnosis of a disease prolongs survival

12

Hawthorne effect definition

individual behavior changes when a person knows they are being observed

13

regression to the mean definition

the further a value is from the mean, the more likely future recordings are closer to the mean

14

Neyman bias definition

selective survival bias
cases in a study have different exposures than the ones that die

15

When does stratification reduce confounding?

analysis stage

16

3 ways to reduce confounding during the design stage

randomization
restriction
matching

17

3 ways to reduce confounding during the analysis stage

standardization
stratification
statistical modeling

18

Bayes theorem equation

(prevalence)(sensitivity)/(prevalence)(sensitivity) + [(1-prev)(1-specificity)]

19

incidence density definition

number of new cases of a disease per summation of time that each person is at risk of a disease in a specified time and place

20

incidence density equation

#new cases/sum of person-time

21

central limit theorem definition

when there are a large amount of mutually independent random variables, the mean population will approach normal distribution (n >30)

22

IQ mean and SD

100 +/- 15

23

z-score definiton

how many standard deviations are between an observed value and the mean

24

z-score equation

observed value - mean / standard deviation

25

rule of addition equation

event 1 + event 2 - (event 1 and event 2 overlap) = probability
used for non-mutually exclusive events

26

standard mortality ratio equation

observed # of deaths/expected # of deaths x 100

27

direct adjustment

when you use a second population to extrapolate estimates

28

null hypothesis definition

there is no difference between the variables being tested

29

type 1 error definition

when a null hypothesis is rejected when it is actually true (ex. false-positives)

30

type 2 error definition

when a false null hypothesis is not rejected (ex. false negatives)