Flashcards in Ch. 4 Coping With Environmental Variation: Temperature And Water Deck (61)
Preservation of bodies by freezing, in hopes they can be brought back to life in the future
Few vertebrates can withstand freezing -
Organisms have two options for coping with environmental variation:
Physiological ecology -
- study of interactions between organisms and their environment
- how these interactions influence their survival and persistence
The physical environment influences an organisms success in two ways:
- Affects availability of energy and resources and the ability to maintain metabolic functions, grow and reproduce
- extreme environmental conditions affect survival
Actual geographic distribution of a species also related to other actors, such as ___ and ___.
Disturbance and competition
A species ___ ___ is the range of conditions over which it occurs.
Environmental change results in decreased rates of important physiological processes, lowering potential for survival, growth, or reproduction
Not enough oxygen is delivered to your tissues
Short-term, reversible, process within a single individuals lifetime
An individual phenomena
Long-term, population-level change to environmental stress over time via natural selection
A population phenomena
- populations with adaptations to unique environments
Acclimatization and adaptation require investments of energy and resources.
Represents possible ___ with other functions that can also affect survival and reproduction.
Some organisms can survive periods of extreme heat or cold by entering a state of ___, in which little or no metabolic activity occurs.
Examples of dormancy:
- daily torpor
Energy exchange with environment can be by four processes -
Transfer of energy from warmer to cooler molecules
Example: snuggling -> heat will transfer from warmer person to cooler person
Heat energy is carried by moving water or air
Example: if you're in a pool and you are warmer than the water, you will heat up water around you. If your little sister comes by and swishes water and will move cold water onto you.
Water absorbs heat as it changes state from liquid to gas
Radiating heat from warmer to cooler
Example: heat from fire will radiate to your hands
Losses of energy include emission of infrared radiation to environment, and through ___.
What factors effect energy transfer in plants?
- solar radiation
- infrared radiation
- convective heat transfer
- conductive heat transfer
- heat transfer by evapotranspiration
Transpiration rates can be controlled by specialized guard cells surround a pose, called a ___.
___ has been studied in the daisy family.
Reciprocal transplanting -
Plants of all species were grown in both locations
Boundary layer -
Zone of turbulent flow
Evaporative heat loss in animals includes:
- sweating in humans
- panting in dogs and other animals
- licking of body parts by some marsupials
Primarily regulate body temperature through energy exchange with external environment
Rely primarily on internal heat generation