Ch. 4 Coping With Environmental Variation: Temperature And Water Flashcards Preview

Ecology > Ch. 4 Coping With Environmental Variation: Temperature And Water > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 4 Coping With Environmental Variation: Temperature And Water Deck (61)
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1

Cryonics -

Preservation of bodies by freezing, in hopes they can be brought back to life in the future

2

Few vertebrates can withstand freezing -

Freeze tolerance

3

Organisms have two options for coping with environmental variation:

Tolerance
Avoidance

4

Physiological ecology -

- study of interactions between organisms and their environment
- how these interactions influence their survival and persistence

5

The physical environment influences an organisms success in two ways:

- Affects availability of energy and resources and the ability to maintain metabolic functions, grow and reproduce

- extreme environmental conditions affect survival

6

Actual geographic distribution of a species also related to other actors, such as ___ and ___.

Disturbance and competition

7

A species ___ ___ is the range of conditions over which it occurs.

Climate envelope

8

Stress -

Environmental change results in decreased rates of important physiological processes, lowering potential for survival, growth, or reproduction

9

Hypoxia -

Not enough oxygen is delivered to your tissues

10

Acclimatization -

Short-term, reversible, process within a single individuals lifetime

An individual phenomena

11

Adaptation -

Long-term, population-level change to environmental stress over time via natural selection

A population phenomena

12

Ecotypes:

- populations with adaptations to unique environments

13

Acclimatization and adaptation require investments of energy and resources.

Represents possible ___ with other functions that can also affect survival and reproduction.

Trade offs

14

Some organisms can survive periods of extreme heat or cold by entering a state of ___, in which little or no metabolic activity occurs.

Dormancy

15

Examples of dormancy:

- hibernation
- daily torpor
- estivation

16

Energy exchange with environment can be by four processes -

Conduction
Convection
Evaporation
Radiation

17

Conduction -

Transfer of energy from warmer to cooler molecules

Example: snuggling -> heat will transfer from warmer person to cooler person

18

Convection -

Heat energy is carried by moving water or air

Example: if you're in a pool and you are warmer than the water, you will heat up water around you. If your little sister comes by and swishes water and will move cold water onto you.

19

Evaporation -

Water absorbs heat as it changes state from liquid to gas

Example:

20

Radiation -

Radiating heat from warmer to cooler

Example: heat from fire will radiate to your hands

21

Losses of energy include emission of infrared radiation to environment, and through ___.

Evapotranspiration

22

What factors effect energy transfer in plants?

- solar radiation
- infrared radiation
- convective heat transfer
- conductive heat transfer
- heat transfer by evapotranspiration

23

Transpiration rates can be controlled by specialized guard cells surround a pose, called a ___.

Stomate

24

___ has been studied in the daisy family.

Pubescence

25

Reciprocal transplanting -

Plants of all species were grown in both locations

26

Boundary layer -

Zone of turbulent flow

27

Evaporative heat loss in animals includes:

- sweating in humans
- panting in dogs and other animals
- licking of body parts by some marsupials

28

Ectotherms -

Primarily regulate body temperature through energy exchange with external environment

29

Endotherms -

Rely primarily on internal heat generation

30

Ectotherms generally have higher tolerance for ___ ___ ___ than do endotherms.

Internal temperature variation