Ch. 9: Long-life And Intangible Assets Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 9: Long-life And Intangible Assets Deck (34)
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1

amortization

The systematic write-off of the cost of an intangible asset over its economic life.

2

depletion

The pro-rata allocation of the cost of land (through direct ownership or lease) to the units of natural resources removed from the land.

3

depreciation

The systematic and rational allocation of the cost of an asset over its useful life.

4

intangible asset

An asset that cannot readily be seen or touched. Examples of intangible assets are copyrights, franchises, patents, and trademarks. Intangible assets have no physical substance, but are of value to the owners of the organization.

5

long-life asset

An asset that has an expected useful life of 1 year or more. Long-life assets are also referred to as “fixed assets,” “plant assets,” or “property, plant, and equipment.

6

accelerated cost recovery system

A method used from 1981 to 1986 for calculating depreciation for Federal Income Tax purposes. This method approximated the 150% declining balance method of calculating accelerated depreciation. This method was not recognized by GAAP.

7

accumulated depreciation

A contraasset account that is used to offset an asset that is subject to depreciation. The balance in this account represents the amount of cumulative depreciation expense recognized since the asset was placed into service. When the value of the accumulated depreciation account is subtracted from the value of the asset, the resulting amount is known as the book value of the asset. Any gain or loss resulting from the subsequent sale of the asset is determined by the excess of revenue received beyond the book value of the asset. Obviously, if the book value exceeds the revenue received, then a loss results.

8

book value

The original cost of a fixed asset, less the accumulated depreciation.

9

capital expenditure

A material expenditure, for an asset that will be used for more than 1 year, that increases the value or useful life of that fixed asset.

10

capital improvement

An expenditure (cost) made to a fixed asset in order to increase the useful life of the asset over several accounting periods. Examples include the installation of a new motor in an old truck and the addition of a room to a building.

11

capital

The ownership of the assets of a business by the proprietor(s).

12

contra-asset account

An account that has a credit balance and reduces an asset account to reflect the proper amount on the balance sheet. The accumulated depreciation account and the allowance for bad debts account are examples of contra-asset accounts.

13

cost principle

The cost assigned to an asset, including the purchase price, transportation charges, installation charges, and any other costs associated with placing the asset into use by the organization.

14

current asset

An asset that can reasonably be expected to be used up or converted into cash or sold within 1 year or less.

15

depreciable value

The original cost of a fixed asset, less the residual value of the asset. Depreciable value represents the total cost of the asset that is subject to depreciation.

16

double-declining balance method

An accelerated method of depreciation that uses a rate twice as high as the straight-line method. The rate is applied to the remaining balance (book value) of the asset every year.

17

fixed asset

An asset that has an expected useful life or 1 year or more. Fixed assets are also referred to as “plant assets” or “property, plant, and equipment.

18

franchise

A right or privilege to sell or distribute a product in accordance with special conditions.

19

goodwill

The dollar value assigned to a business’s managerial skills and reputation. It is usually recognized at the time the business is sold.

20

income tax method

A method whereby, when a plant asset is traded in for a similar asset, recognition of the gain or loss on the trade is spread out over the useful life of the new asset acquired.

21

leasehold

Real estate held by a tenant as a result of a lease.

22

license

A right, usually purchased, to market or use a particular process or product.

23

modified accelerated cost recovery system

A method used to calculate depreciation from 1987 on. It approximates the double-declining balance method of calculating depreciation and is used for Federal Income Tax purposes as outlined in the Tax Reform Act of 1987. It is a method not recognized by GAAP.

24

obsolescence

The condition whereby an asset is no longer useful to an organization because of technological improvement or business reorganization of the process for which the asset was previously used.

25

patent

An exclusive right, given by the federal government, to an individual or a group to market or use a particular process or invention. See also license.

26

physical deterioration

The wearing out of a plant asset due to use.

27

property, plant, and equipment

Assets that have a useful life of more than 1 year and are used in the continuing operations of the organization.

28

residual value

The value of a fixed asset after it has been fully depreciated. It is an estimate of what the asset will be sold for when it is no longer usable.

29

revenue expenditure

An expenditure related to a plant asset that is expensed when incurred. Maintenance and repair costs are usually handled as a revenue expenditure.

30

straight-line method

The most common method used by companies to reflect the deterioration of assets. The total cost of the asset, less any residual value, is divided by the useful life of the asset to determine the annual depreciation cost. The name given to the method reflects the fact that the same depreciation is recognized each year for a given plant asset.