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1

What is inflammation?

a protective response involving host cells, blood vessels and proteins and other mediators that is intended to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury as well as the necrotic cells and tissues resulting from the original insult and to initiate the process of repair.

2

What are the characteristics of acute inflammation?

rapid in onset
short duration (minutes to days)
fluid and plasma protein exudation
predominantly neutrophilic leukocyte accumulation

3

what are the characteristics of chronic inflammation?

longer duration (days to years)
lymphocytes and macrophages
vascular proliferation
fibrosis

4

what are the external signs of inflammation?

heat--calor
redness--rubor
swelling--tumor
pain--dolor
loss of fxn--functio laesa

5

who added the 5th cardinal sign of inflammation?

Rudolf Virchow, the 'father of modern pathology'

6

what are the two major components of acute inflammation?

vascular changes--vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
leukocyte recruitment and activation

7

what are the two most important families of pattern recognition receptors?

-Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
-inflammasome

8

what do TLRs sense? where are they found (on/in) a cell

-products of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens.
-found on plasma membrane--sense environment

9

what do inflammasomes sense? where are they found (on/in) a cell?

- products of dead cells, such as uric acid and extracellular ATP
-activate caspase-1
-found in a cell--sense cytoplasm

10

what is responsible for the redness and warmth characteristic of acute inflammation?

arteriolar vasodilation

11

what is stasis, as applied to acute inflammation?

the dilation of microvasculature causing blood to become more concentrated and viscous, decreasing circulation

12

what is margination?

the accumulation of leukocytes along the vascular endothelial surface as stasis develops.

13

what is exudate?

protein-rich fluid accumulation in vessels as water leaves the blood and enters the tissues due to osmotic pressure imbalance during increased vascular permeability

14

what is transudate

interstitial fluid accumulations caused by increased hydrostatic pressure, typically a consequence of reduced venous return.
low [protein] and few or no blood cells

15

which is normally found with acute inflammation, exudate or transudate?

exudate

16

what causes increased vascular permeability in acute inflammatory reactions?

1-endothelial cell contraction leading to intercellular gaps in postcapillary venules (MC)
2- endothelial injury
3-increased transcytosis
4-leakage from new blood vessels

17

what do leukocytes do?

1-ingest offending agents, kill bacteria, and other microbes
2-eliminate necrotic tissue and foreign substances

18

what cell types have surface receptors?

macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells

19

what is diapedesis

when a cell goes out of circulation to get to target tissue during acute inflammation

20

what are the sequence of events in the recruitmentof leukocytes form the vascular lumen to the extravascular space?

1- margination and rolling along the vessel wall
2- firm adhesion to the endothelium
3-transmigration between endothelial cells
4-migration in interstitial tissues toward a chemotactic stimulus

21

Leukocyte activation results in the enhancement of what functions?

1- phagocytosis
2-intracellular destruction of phagocytosed microbes and dead cells
3-liberation of substances that destroy extracellular microbes and dead tissues
4- production of mediators

22

what is opsonization?

the process by which leukocytes recognize host proteins (opsonins) that coat microbes and target them for phagocytosis
-most important opsonins are antibodies of IgG class

23

what are the most important microbicidal substances for killing and degrading phagocytosed microbes?

ROS and lysosomal enzymes (esp. elastase)

24

when does scarring occur?

after substantial tissue destruction or after chronic inflammation

25

lymphangitis

inflammation of a lymphatic channel

26

lymphandenitis

inflammation of a lymph node, increase in size

27

lymphandenopathy

general disorder of lymph nodes

28

what cells are predominately found in acute inflammation in the first 24-48 hours? following that time period?

24-48 hours=neutrophils
after= monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes

29

what are collectins?

plasma carbohydrate-binding lectins which bind to microbial cell wall sugar groups

30

what are the possible outcomes of acute inflammation?

1- resolution
2- chronic inflammation
3- scarring