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Flashcards in Chem/Phys Exam III Deck (37)
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1

4 physical states of matter

Solid, liquid, gas, plasma

2

Solids

-have a definite shape and volume
-have a movement (vibrate)
—molecules are touching and do not separate
-held in place by intermolecular forces
-non-compressible

3

Liquid

-Definite volume, no definite shape
-molecule are touching but have more movement
-intermolecular forces are weaker and allow the molecules to slide past each other
-non-compressible

4

Gases

-have no definite shape or volume
-expand to fill the container
-molecules are not touching and have more movement
-no intermolecular forces
-Compressible

5

Heat of Fusion

Amt. of E necessary to melt a solid int liquid phase

6

Heat of Vaporization

Ant. of E necessary to vaporize a liquid into gas phase

7

3 types of intermole-cular forces

London dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding

8

Dipole -dipole forces

-polar molecule
Ex: acetone
-boiling point 56C, liquid @room temp

9

Hydrogen bonding

-polar molecular
-Strongest type of dipole bond
-boiling point 100C, liquid @room temp

10

London dispersion forces

-non-polar molecule
-ex. CH4
-weakest type of inter-molecular bond
-boiling pt. -164, gas @room temp

11

Type of Bond

Ionic and Covalent

12

Ionic Bond

-one atom donates electron to another
-ex: Na+ and CL-= NaCL

13

Covalent bond

-atoms share electrons
Ex. H+ and O- = H2O

14

Hydrogen Bonding occurs when:

- a H atom is bonded directly to O, N or F

15

Surfactant Lowers

Surface tension

16

Without Surfactant

-the thin film of fluid lining the alveoli could cause the walls to stick together and collapse
-surfactant reduces the surface tension so this doesn’t happen

17

Inhaled anesthetics comes in what form?

Liquid

18

How do inhaled Anesthetics change from liquid to vapor

Vaporizers

19

Vapor pressure

-when molecules of a liquid escapes into the gas phase, they collide with the walls of the container, exerting a force on the walls

20

An increased in temp causes an increase in

-vapor Pressure and in “Volatility”

21

For enflurane, A= 7.967
Torr, B= -1678 torr x K
What is the vapor presser of enflurane at 25C?

LogP=7.967+-1678/298K
LogP=2.34(now need to take the antilog to solve for P)
On your calculator, antilog is 10x
Antilog (2.34)= 102.34= 217 torr (same as 217mmHg)

22

What does Vapor Pressure determine of a volatile anesthetic in a gas mixture

-mole fraction or Partial Pressure
Ex: If O2 is sent through a vaporizer with liquid enflurane, the composition of the O2 enflurane mixture will depend on the temp. Of the vaporizer and the pressure of the O2.

23

The mole fraction is calculated as follows:
Xenflurane= vapor pressure of enflurane =217torr
Total pressure 750= 0.29

Find Mole fraction of enflurane: We run O2 at 750 torr through a vaporizer so that it becomes saturated with enflurane. In this case, we are at room temp. 25C; the partial pressure of enflurane.
The pressure of the mixture is still 750 torr, but part of this is now composed of enflurane

24

Boiling point

The temp at which the vapor pressure is equal to the ambient pressure (normally one atmosphere)

25

Boiling point of a liquid will increase if:

The pressure on the liquid is increased
Ex: Water normally boils into steam at 100C, but in a sealed pressured auto-clave, the boiling point increase to 120C or more.

26

Gas to solid phase change

Deposition

27

Solid to Gas phase change

Sublimation

28

Heat of fusion

Energy required to melt a solid into liquid

29

Heat of vaporization

Energy required to vaporize a liquid into gas

30

Intermolecular forces

Dipole-dipole: partial charge on molecules interact.
Hydrogen bonding: strongest type of dipole bond.
London dispersion forces: non-polar molecules, weakest intermolecular bond due to transient shifts in charge locations on molecular.