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Flashcards in Conservation Deck (26)
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1

what did the national parks and access to the countryside act 1949 do? 4 points

allowed the designation of:
1) national parks
2) AONB's
3) Local nature reserves (LNR)
4) National nature reserves (NNR)

2

What does AONB stand for

Area of outstanding natural beauty

3

what is a metapopulation?

it is a group within a species. for example different herds of deer are different groups but they are all part of the same species

4

what are two types of disturbance?

natural disturbance

man made

5

5 examples of natural disturbances:

Wild fires

flooding

earthquakes

high winds

volcanos

6

what are the two different types of fire disturbance?

crown fire

surface fire

7

disturbances are categorised by? 4 points

size

severity

intensity

type

8

2 man made disturbances:

Controlled fire patches

grazing patches

9

what is ecological succession

its a process by which the structure of a biological community evolves over time

10

what criteria are used to decide which habitats need protection? 4 points

Habitat vulnerability

Present species vulnerability

Value to ecosystem

Local and global distribution

11

what are the two types of succession?

primary and secondary

12

what is primary succession?

It is the succession of a habitat in an area that is considered lifeless

13

what is secondary succession?

is the succession of a habitat that was previously colonised after it has been damaged

14

2 examples of primary succession:

plants growing after a lava flow

plants growing on a new sand dune

15

2 examples of secondary succession:

regrowth after a forest fire

regrowth after clear felling a site

16

When was the RSPCA founded?

1840

17

When was the RSPB founded?

1904

18

Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981 (4 points)

1) Public rights of way

2) new sssi designations

3) protection of species

4) Natural Environment & Rural Communities Act 2006 (NERC)

19

UK Post-2010 Biodiversity Framework (4 points)

1)Address underlying causes of biodiversity loss

2)Reduce direct pressures on biodiversity

3)Improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems

4)Enhance benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystems

20

What effect does reducing population size have on genetic diversity?

Reduces genetic diversity through in-breeding causing less fit individuals. This causes Genetic Drift

21

What effect does low genetic diversity have on species conservation?

Reduces Conservation effect due to:

The Allele Effect
Increased risk from catastrophes and stochasticity
Resulting in a negative feedback chain

22

What effect does high genetic diversity have on species conservation? 3 points

Potential for evolutionary change (natural selection)

Increases fitness of individuals

More diverse system withstands variability better

23

What does In Situ Conservation consist of? 4 points

Species Protection

Site Protection

Site Management

All in their natural habitat

24

What does Ex Situ Conservation consist of?

Living Collections (zoos, botanical gardens)
Germplasm Collections (agricultural species)
(This is expensive and increases disease risk but improves reproductive success and is longer term)

25

What happens when In and Ex Situ methods are combined?

Species are bred in captivity but released into their natural habitat when ready. Habitats and species remain protected.

26

What are the problems with focusing on species protection? 4 points

Expensive

Can only save a fraction of threatened species

Doesn't address the underlying causes of species loss

No attention paid to habitats and ecosystem services