Flashcards in Conservation Deck (26)
what did the national parks and access to the countryside act 1949 do? 4 points
allowed the designation of:
1) national parks
3) Local nature reserves (LNR)
4) National nature reserves (NNR)
What does AONB stand for
Area of outstanding natural beauty
what is a metapopulation?
it is a group within a species. for example different herds of deer are different groups but they are all part of the same species
what are two types of disturbance?
5 examples of natural disturbances:
what are the two different types of fire disturbance?
disturbances are categorised by? 4 points
2 man made disturbances:
Controlled fire patches
what is ecological succession
its a process by which the structure of a biological community evolves over time
what criteria are used to decide which habitats need protection? 4 points
Present species vulnerability
Value to ecosystem
Local and global distribution
what are the two types of succession?
primary and secondary
what is primary succession?
It is the succession of a habitat in an area that is considered lifeless
what is secondary succession?
is the succession of a habitat that was previously colonised after it has been damaged
2 examples of primary succession:
plants growing after a lava flow
plants growing on a new sand dune
2 examples of secondary succession:
regrowth after a forest fire
regrowth after clear felling a site
When was the RSPCA founded?
When was the RSPB founded?
Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981 (4 points)
1) Public rights of way
2) new sssi designations
3) protection of species
4) Natural Environment & Rural Communities Act 2006 (NERC)
UK Post-2010 Biodiversity Framework (4 points)
1)Address underlying causes of biodiversity loss
2)Reduce direct pressures on biodiversity
3)Improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems
4)Enhance benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystems
What effect does reducing population size have on genetic diversity?
Reduces genetic diversity through in-breeding causing less fit individuals. This causes Genetic Drift
What effect does low genetic diversity have on species conservation?
Reduces Conservation effect due to:
The Allele Effect
Increased risk from catastrophes and stochasticity
Resulting in a negative feedback chain
What effect does high genetic diversity have on species conservation? 3 points
Potential for evolutionary change (natural selection)
Increases fitness of individuals
More diverse system withstands variability better
What does In Situ Conservation consist of? 4 points
All in their natural habitat
What does Ex Situ Conservation consist of?
Living Collections (zoos, botanical gardens)
Germplasm Collections (agricultural species)
(This is expensive and increases disease risk but improves reproductive success and is longer term)
What happens when In and Ex Situ methods are combined?
Species are bred in captivity but released into their natural habitat when ready. Habitats and species remain protected.