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Flashcards in Epidemiology and Biostatistics Deck (154)
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1

The usual, expected rate of disease over time; when the disease is maintained without much variation within a region is called ......

Endemic

2

The occurrence of disease in excess of the expected rate (an outbreak) is called ......

Epidemic

3

An worldwide epidemic is called .....

Pandemic

4

The actual measured rate for a whole population is the ..... rate

crude

5

The actual measured rate for a subgroup of population is the ..... rate

specific

6

The rate that is adjusted to make groups equal on one factor (an "as if" statistic for comparing groups, thus removing any difference between the population is the ..... rate, also called ..... rate

standardized/ adjusted

7

When analysing prevention, it's helpful to think about disease state. Thus, Primary prevetion promotes ......, there's no ......; it decrease disease ....... Secondary prevention is ...... detection of ...... or mild disease; one example are ..... tests; it effect on prevalence is ....., depending on the intervention. Tertiaty prevention prevent ..... and slow ......

health/ disease/ incidence/ early/ asymptomatic/ screening/ variable/ recurrence/ progression

8

Sensitivity is the test ability to identify ..... patient. A sensitive test negative result rule ...... disease. 1 - sensitivity = ...... rate. Specificity is the test ability to identify ..... patient. A specific test positive result ...... disease. 1 - specificity = ...... rate. A screening test should have high .......

sick/ out/ false negative/ healthy/ false positive/ sensitivity

9

High prevalence of a disease increase the ......., while low prevalence of a disease increase the ....... Prevalence has no effect on ...... or ....... of a test. And increasing Incidence has no effect on ..... or ......

Positive predictive value/ Negative predictive value/ Sensitivity/ Specificity/ sensitivity/ positive predictive value

10

The point of optimum sensitivity equals the point of optimal ....... predictive value, while the point of optimum specificity equals the point of optimal ....... predictive value

negative/ positive

11

Bias in research is a deviation from the truth. The reliability of a test is th ability to ....... the test, either across testing situations (....... reliability), within a test (........ reliability), or across judges (....... reliability). Validity is the ...... of a test, the degree to which a test measures what was intended.

reproduce/ test-retest/ split-half/ inter-rater/ accuracy

12

In a study, when sample is not representative to population, it's called ...... bias. If this bias is due to sample be collected in a hospital trying to estimate the population prevalence it's called ..... bias. When people who are included on a survey are different from people not included, it's called ....... bias. A solution is ...... and ..... data

selection/ Berkson/ nonrespondent/ randomising/ weight

13

In a study, when the process of gathering the information distorts it, it's called ...... bias. It can be due to ..... questions or because subjects behaviour is altered because they are being study (....... effect). A solution is to have a .....

measurement/ leading/ Hawthorne/ control group

14

In a study, when there's ........ (........ effect), experimenters' expectations are inadvertently communicated to subjects, who then produce a desired effect. A solution is to do a ..... study.

experimenter expectancy/ pygmalion/ double-blind

15

In a study, the ...... bias give a false estimate of survival rates. The early detection of a disease is confused with increased survival. A solution is to use ...... to assess the benefit of screening.

lead-time/ life expectancy

16

In a study, the ..... bias is always present in retrospective studies, due to subject fail to accurately recall events. A solution is to use .....

recall/ confirmation

17

In a study, the ..... bias means severe disease individuals are less likely to be uncovered in a survey because they dye first. A solution a to ...... by ......

late look/stratify/ disease severity

18

In a study, the ....... bias is present when the factor being examined is related to other factors of less interest (hidden factors affect results. A solution is to use .....

confounding/ meta-analysis

19

In a study, when there's a ...... bias, parts of the study do not fit together, the most common issue is a non-comparable control group. A solution is to do an ....... of groups.

design/ random assignment

20

Case control study is composed by a group of people with a ......, compared to a group without ........; it's almost always a ...... study. It cannot access ..... or ...... of disease, but can help determining ...... relationships. Very useful for study conditions with very low incidence. Uses ......

disease/ disease/ retrospective/ incidence/ prevalence/ causal/ odds ratio

21

Cohort study is composed of a group who have been exposed to ......, compared to a group not exposed to ........ Outcome is disease ...... in each group. It's a ...... study. It can determine ...... and ...... relationships. Uses ....... risk and ..... risk.

risk factor/ risk factor/ incidence/ prospective/ incidence/ causal/ relative/ attributable

22

Cohort study analyse the data comparing results using ....... risk (how much more likely is something to happen in one group compared to the other), and ..... risk (how many more cases in one group; or how many of the cases are really due to the risk factor). If RR > 1, exposure is ..... to disease; If RR <1, exposure is ...... to disease.

relative/ attributable/ risk factor/ protective

23

Odds ratio estimate the ....... of a ....... Likelihood of someone with the disease had been exposed to risk factor.

strength/ risk factor

24

The phases of a clinical trials are, Phase 1: testing ...... in ........ volunteers; Phase 2: testing protocol and dose in a ...... group of ....... volunteers; and Phase 3: testing ...... and occurrence of ....... in a ...... group of ....... volunteers.Post-FDA approval, marketing surveys will collect reports of drug .......

safety/ healthy/ small/ patient/ efficacy/ side effect/ large/ patients/ side effects

25

Not all curves are normal; sometimes curves are skewed positively or negatively. A positive skew has the tail to the right, and the ...... greater than ..... A negative skew has the tail to the left, and the ...... greater than .....
For skewed distributions, the ...... is a better representation of central tendency than is the .......

mean/ median/ median/ mean/ median/ mean

26

In any normal distribution curve, a constant proportion fall within 1, 2, 3 SDs of the mean: within 1SD ....., 2SD ..... and 3 SD .....

68/ 95/ 99,7

27

Confidence Interval is calculated using the equation: CI=...............
When comparing 2 groups, any overlap of confidence intervals means the groups ........ significantly different. If the given confidence intervals contain 1, then ....... statistically significant effect on exposure.

mean +- Z x (SD/√n)/ are not/ there's no

28

Type I error (alpha error): is when we ...... the null hypothesis when it is really ....... The chance of type I error is given by the .......
Type II error (beta error): is when we ...... the null hypothesis when it is really .......

reject/ true/ p value/ fail to reject/ false

29

If the null hypothesis is rejected, there's no chance of ....... error. If the null hypothesis is not rejected, there's no chance of ....... error.

type II/ type I

30

When comparing 2 nominal data, the statistical test used is ..... When comparing 2 interval data, the statistical test used is ..... When comparing 1 nominal and 1 interval data, the statistical test used is .....

chi-squase/ Pearson correlation/ t- test