if its a short or long pediatric case can you use regular rubing
no! just because its a short case you should never use regular tubing.
If positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen, and jaw thrust maneuver fail to break the laryngospasm, further intervention should be undertaken before desaturation and bradycardia develop. Appropriate treatment would include in the following order
IV or IM atropine (0.02 mg/kg), IV propofol (1 mg/kg), and IV or IM succinylcholine (1 to 2 mg/kg IV or 4 to 5 mg/kg IM).
For third-space losses,
the replacement volume is based on the severity of the losses: 1 to 2 mL/kg/hr for minor surgery, 2 to 5 mL/kg/hr for moderate surgery, and 6 to 10 mL/kg/hr for major surgery and large third-space losses.
how much balanced salt solution should be administered to a child for every 1 ml of fluid lost.
Initial blood loss may be replaced with balanced salt solution at a rate of 3 mL of solution for every 1 mL of blood loss.
parental anxiety may be most extreme with children what age?
the fear of death is greatest in :
teenagers/ adolescent (13-19 yr o)
in peds, the larynx has a higher position in
the narrowest portion of the larynx in ped patients
the cricoid cartilage (as opposed to the VC's in adults)
Full term neonates require higher or lower concentrations of volatiles than infants 1-6 mos of age do?
lower *younger the greater their metabolic rate
MAC in preterm neonates increases or decreases with decreasing gestational age?
MAC steadily increases until what age:
After 3 mos, MAC steadily
declines with age *there is a slight increase at puberty
Neonates and infants require more succinylcholine on a ______ basis than do older children to produce similar degrees of neuromusculuar blockade b/c of :
-more sux per kilogram basis -the increased ECF volume and larger volume distribution
sux is limited to cases requiring
RSI and tx of laryngospasm b/c of risks for bradycardia and MH
uptake of inhaled anesthetics is more rapid in infants than older children or adults b/c of the infants
high alveolar ventilation relative to FRC
Protein binding of many drugs in decreased in infants which can result in
high circulating concentrations of UNBOUND and pharmacologically active drugs
as a group, low gestation age NB's have immaturity of all organ systems and represent the most vulnerable of all peds patients with the highest
morbidity and mortality
surfactant is produced by
Type 2 pneumocytes
reduces alveolar surface tension -helps maintain alveolar stabiltiy
RDS is apparent within
minutes of birth
during anesthesia, arterial O2 saturation should be maintained near pts
pre-op levels *100% before = 100% during
goal HCT to optimize systemic O2 delivery
40% (but you might see something like 45%)
excessive hydration should be avoided; so use colloids over crystalloids. whats the replacement ratio?
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a form of
chronic lung disease of infancy
the canalicular phase of lung development is at how many weeks?
BPD is a clinical dx defined as
-O2 dependence at 36 weeks post conceptual age or -O2 requirement to maintain PaO2 > 50mmHG beyond 28 days of life in infants with birth weights of less than 1500g
BPD tx is to maintain oxygenation of: why? prevents and promotes what?
PaO2 > 55 mmHG and O2 sat >94% prevents cor pulmonale (RHF) and promote growth of lung tissue and remodeling of pulmonary vascular bed
IN children w/a hx of mechanical ventilation, an ET one to one half size smaller than that predicted for age should be use because:
subglottic stenosis may be present
in the preterm newborn, airway hyperreactivity is likely. what plane of anesthesia must be established before airway instrumentation?
in the preterm newborn, fluids should be administered judiciously to avoid